water is removed and polymers are formed. also called dehydration reactions
polymers are broken down into monomers by water.
proteins are the most structurally complex polymers in the cell. catalytic proteins
provide physical stability and movement
move substance between one place and another
sense conditions and initiate a signal or response
alpha helix-right handed coil resulting from hydrogen bonding between N-H groups on one amino acid and C=O groups on another.
beta pleated sheet- two or more polypeptide chains are aligned; hydrogen bonds between the chains
.Bending and folding results in a macromolecule with specific three-dimensional shape.
.The outer surfaces present functional groups that can
interact with other molecules.
.non-polar hydrophobic core
disulfide bridges, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic side chains, van der Waal forces, ionic bonds
results from the interaction of subunits by hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals forces, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds.
storage of glucose in plants (branched)
very stable, good for structural components (not branched)
storage of glucose in animals (branched)
modification of carbs
addition of sugar phosphate, chitin, or amino sugars
Structure of RNA
single stranded. phosphodiester linkage.
can have a more complex secondary of tertiary structure
Structure of DNA
double stranded pyrimidine/purine base
diversity lies in the sequence of base pairs, but same structure.
info is encoded in the sequences