Unit 4: Reason and Revolution

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Test Flash Cards- World History

absolutism

a form of government in which all power is rested in a single ruler; no checks and balances

absolute monarch

a king or queen with complete control of their country or empire

divine right

monarchs receive their power from God and are only responsible to God (do not answer to his people)

Philip II (Spain)

1556-1598, spread Catholicism, tried to conquer a lot of land, dug Spain into huge debt and war

Spanish armada

the great fleet sent from Spain against England bu Philip II in 1588

Huguenots

French Protestants of the 1500s and 1600s (Louis XIV)

Cardinal Richelieu

minister of Louis XIII, he spend 18 years strengthening the central government, sought to destroy the power of the Huguenots and nobles- the two groups that didn't bow to royal authority; gave people jobs to tie them to the government

Louis XIII (France)

king of France from 1610-1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu

Louis XIV (France)

1642-1715 (72years) many riots and protesting, he took complete control over gov. when his minister died. He firmly believed in his divine right; never called a meeting of the Estates-General; to strengthen his rule he used to policies of Richelieu; built the French army into the strongest in Europe; supported the arts; spent a lot of resources on wars; revoked the Edict of Nantes making Huguenots flee (most prosperous of his subjects) mainly bad: reduced power of the nobility, fought four wars,greatly increased national debt

intendant

official appointed by French king Louis XIV to govern the provinces, collect taxes, and recruit soldiers

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

finance minister for Louis XIV; imposed mercantilist policies to bolster the economy; his policies helped make France the wealthiest state in Europe

Versailles

royal French residence (palace) and seat of government established by King Louis XIV

Frederick the Great (Prussia)

1740-1786; many military victories and defeats; encouraged religious freedom (for economic diversity); brought Prussia great power and wealth, increased military strength and doubled land

Peter the Great (Russia)

1689-1725; made a play army (skillful); deprived church of independence, modernized Russia (westernized) visited Europe and was impressed; he was autocratic because Russians didn't want to change their ways so he had to rule with ultimate authority; he passed laws that helped nobles so they would be on his side; he tortured and executed rebels; wanted warm water port (unsuccessful); fought Great Northern War: lost first time won second (against Swedish); made Russia biggest country

boyars

a landowning noble in Russia under the tsars; were forced by Peter to serve the state in civilian or military positions

westernization

adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture

St. Petersburg

capital city and major port that Peter the Great established in 1703; magnificent and expensive

Catherine the Great (Russia)

Peter's successor; wife of assassinated tsar; worked to bring Russia full into European cultural and political life; she was a ruthless monarch: took firm action to repress rebels; was determined to expand borders (gained warm water port from Ottoman Empire) took over parts of Poland

James I (England)

successor of Elizabeth I (relative- the king of Scotland) 1603;he was not as popular or skillful with Parliament; He agreed to rule according to English laws and customs but repeatedly clashed with Parliament over money and foreign policies

Charles I (England)

inherited throne in 1625 form James I; behaved like an absolute monarch; Parliament made him sign the Petition of Right; but he dissolved Parliament soon after; didn't use Parliament for 11 years but then needed it in 1640 for funds to suppress Scottish rebellion, they refused and launched own rebellion (started English Civil War) first executed monarch

Petition of Right

a document that prohibited the king from raising taxes without Parliament's consent, or from jailing anyone without legal justification. (Charles I ignored it for 11 years)

Puritans

a group of dissenters- Protestants who differed with Church of England; sought to "purify" the Church of Catholic practices; called for simpler church without bishops. (James I rejected their demands) on Oliver Cromwell's side (Roundheads)

parliament

a group of people that made decisions with the king (on Oliver Cromwell's side)

English Civil War

fought against the Cavaliers and Roundheads because of their opposing views; ended with the king being put on trial and executed

Oliver Cromwell

led the Roundheads; organized a "New Model Army"- ranked by skill rather than social class; won the war; leader of the Commonwealth; later took the title "Lord Protector"; ruled as a virtual dictoator through the army; banned 'fun' stuff with Puritans; oppressed Levellers and Catholics

Cavaliers

supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War (wealthy nobles) this side lost

Roundheads

the names for the forces of Parliament in the English Civil War (called this because their hair was cut short around their heads) this side won

English Commonwealth

the name of England (now republic) after the English Civil War under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell; supporters of Charles II (uncrowned heir) challenged the Commonwealth but Cromwell crushed the uprising; Catholics were exiled; fun banned; it all ended when Cromwell died; Charles II followed

Levellers

group that thought that poor men should have as much to say in government as the gentry, lawyers and other citizens (during the Commonwealth)

Charles II (England)

followed the Commonwealth (the Restoration); popular ruler; got rid of the strict Puritan laws (boring ones); reestablished Church of England; accepted the Petition of Right but believed in absolute monarchy; eventually dissolved Parliament; secretly Catholic

James II (England)

successor of Charles II (his brother) (the Restoration); openly Catholic; angered subjects by randomly suspending laws and appointing Catholics to high office (subjects mostly Protestant); dissolved Parliament; fled to France when William and Mary came (Glorious Revolution)

William and Mary

Mary: James II Protestant daughter married to William: Protestant, Dutch king
became the rulers of England after James II (Glorious Revolution) (get asked to by subjects); signed the English Bill of Rights

English Bill of Rights

series of acts passed by the English Parliament in 1689 that limited the rights of the monarchy and ensured the superiority of Parliament; accepted by William and Mary

limited monarchy

government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's powers

natural law/natural rights

rules of conduct discoverable by reason/ right that belongs to all humans from birth, such as life, liberty, and property

Thomas Hobbes

1588-1679; English; wrote "Leviathan"; thought humans born evil and selfish and needed a strong central authority to control disorder; believed in social contract; had a secular justification for absolute monarchy

John Locke

1632-1704; English; wrote "Two Treaties on Government"; thought people are naturally reasonable, moral; believed in natural rights and that people had the right to overthrow their government if maltreated.

social contract

an agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos

philosophe

French for "philosopher"; French thinker who desired reform in society during the Enlightenment

salon

informal social gathering at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas

Baron de Montesquieu

1689-1755; French; wrote "Spirit of the Laws"; believed in the separaation of powers between legislative (commons), judicial (aristocracy) and executive (monarchy) also checks and balances

Voltaire

1694-1778; French; wrote "Candite"; attacked the "Old Regime"; critic of the Catholic Church; separation of church and state; thought enlightenment monarch could institute reform; religious toleration and freedom of speech

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712-1788; French; wrote "Social Contract"; people are naturally good; informal contract among the people themselves; importance of education; state represents the good will of the state; limited government, ruled by educated

laissez faire

policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference

ancien régime

old order; system of government in pre-revolution France

estates

social class
French Revolution: First Estate- clergy, Second Estate- nobles, Third Estate- bourgeoisie, peasants, and city workers

bourgeoisie

the middle class (French Revolution) part of the Third Estate

Louis XV

bad monarch: continued to increase debt (after Louis XIV), debauchery at court, fought Seven Years' War (Bristish vs. French, Austrians and Russians), lost land in New France

Louis XVI

weak leader, frivolous activities (hunted during starvation period), France was almost bankrupt, people disliked wife (Marie Antoinette)

Jacques Necker

Financial Minister in France; needed new source of revenue during increasing debt: suggests property taxes on all estates

Estates-General

legislative body made up of representatives of the three estates in pre-Revolutionary France

cahier

notebook used during the French Revolution to record grievances

Tennis Court Oath

famous oath made on a tennis court by members of the Third Estate in France; vowed not to leave until France had a constitution

Bastille

fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789

Declaration of Rights

outlined basic freedoms held by all; speech, assembly, religion, no arbitrary arrest and punishment; asserted the sovereignty of the people (as a first step to writing a constitution)

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

issued in 1790 (France); made bishops and priests become elected, salaried officials; ended papal authority over the French Church; dissolved convents and monasteries; many bishops and priests refused to accept it (made by National Assembly)

"Great Fear"

caused by rumors; spread panic; peasants unleashed their fury on nobles; they set fire to old manor records and stole grain from storehouses (in France)

Olympe de Gouges

a woman journalist that was mad that the Declaration of Rights of Man didn't grant equal citizenship to women; demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen; later was imprisoned and then executed

Marie Antoinette

Austrian born queen; married to Louis XVI; subjects hated her because of her 'fake' servant life; led an extravagant and expensive life

émigré

person who flees his or her country for political reasons

sans-culotte

working-class man or woman who made the French Revolution more radical; called such because he or she wore long trousers instead of the fancy knee breeches that the upper class wore

republic

system of government in which officials are chosen by the people

Reign of Terror

time period during the French Revolution from September 1793 to July 1794 when people in France were arrested for not supporting the revolution and many were executed

Jacobins

member of a radical political club during the French Revolution; made the National Convention

guillotine

device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading

Maximilien Robespierre

a shrewd lawyer and politician that quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety; nicknamed "the incorruptible" because of his selfless dedication to the revolution; believed like Rousseau; hated the old regime; used terror; base of the Reign of Terror; got arrested and then executed

suffrage

right to vote

Directory

after the Reign of Terror; was set up by the Constitution of 1795; made up of 5-man house; weak but dictatorial; faced growing discontent; turned to Napoleon

nationalism

a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country

Napoleon Bonaparte

popular military hero; military seized power, destroyed Directory; formed the Consulate;
good: Louisiana Purchase; Napoleon Code; National bank, collected taxes, set up new schools
bad: French Empire unable to conquer Britain; Continental System failed; suffers major defeat in Russia and the against the Grand Alliance (Austria, Prussia, Britain and Russia)

Consulate

created Constitution of Year VIII; headed by 3 consuls: Napoleon was 1st consul but then took complete control of government; then made himself consul for life; then crowned himself emperor

Napoleon Code

body of French civil laws introduced in 1804; served as model for many nations' civil codes; forbade privledges based on birth; freedom of religion; government jobs go to most qualified

Continental System

blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britain economically by closing European ports to British goods; ultimately unsuccessful

Battle of Waterloo

Napoleon just came back form being exiled; day-long war against British and Prussian forces under the command of the Duke of Wellington and General Blücher; Napoleon exiled again after

Congress of Vienna

assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together; met from September 1814 to June 1815 (redrew a map of Europe)

peninsulares

members of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas

creoles

person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers

mestizos

person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was of Native American and European descent

mulattoes

in Spain's colonies in the Americas, person who was of African and European descent

Simón Bolívar

(Venezuelan) a young creole who traveled to Europe during the French Revolution and was inspired by the ideas of "liberty, equality, and fraternity"; by 1808 saw Spain as weak (because of Napoleon) and took the opportunity to reject foreign domination and demand independence from colonial rule; was exiled twice; came up with plan to attack Spanish at Bogotá (led army there); more victories; called :the liberator"

Toussaint L'Ouverture

led the revolt in Haiti of the slaves; had French, Spanish and British armies after them because of land; won; slavery was abolished and owned most of the land; Napoleon tried to reconquer but had to agree to a truce; Toussaint was captured; French surrendered; got renamed Haiti; then a republic

Father Miguel Hidalgo

a creole priest in Mexico; said the "Grito": called Mexicans to fight for independence; got a small army together even some creoles but then they dropped out; some early successes; Hidalgo captured and executed (followers scattered)

Father José Morelos

a metizo priest (Mexican); 4 years he led rebel forces before he was captured and shot in 1815

José de San Martín

a creole (Argentinian) went to Europe for military training (general) helped Argentina win victory from Spain; helped other places too; defeated the Spanish in Chile and Peru

Rise of Absolutism

Decline of Feudalism- the power of lords and knights decreased
Decline of the Catholic- people's loyalty goes towards the king and queen because the church is questioned
Growth of the Middle Class/City-life-when you have a large metropolitan area you need someone to control it, the church isn't so they turn toward the king
Constant Warfare- during the time of war you need a leader to plan everything, so king steps up to unify his people to fight in the war
Social Fragmentation- you are born a serf, knight or lord but not anymore the social make up of Europe changed after the Renaissance so people needed a unified leader
Establishment of Foreign Colonies- the places people find then make colonies and they have to give credit to someone: the king, you need someone to look up to, also fund the voyages

Glorious Revolution

when James II fled to France when William and Mary came with army (no blood shed)

The French Revolution

Phase 1: Estates-General, National Assembly, Storming of Bastille
Phase 2: Legislative Assembly, Declaration of Rights, National Convention
Phase 3: Reign of Terror
Phase 4: Directory
Phase 5: Napoleon/ End of Revolution

Impact of French Revolution

sparked nationalist feelings and abolished the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the creation of Germany. Napoleon's decision to sell the Louisiana Territory doubled the size of the United States and ushered in an age of American expansion

Impact of Congress of Vienna

restored stability and order in Europe; established a balance of power; redrew the map of Europe

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