Key ID's, Ch. 8
|Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation||- It was difficult to enact laws as 9 of out of 13 votes were required.|
-Congress could not levy taxes, only request funds from the states.
-Congress could issue money but couldn't prevent the states from doing likewise.
-Congress couldn't control interstate or foreign commerce.
-No provision for an independent executive branch or for a national court to handle disputes between citizens of different states.
|Land Ordinance of 1785|| -It provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest be sold and the proceeds would be used to pay off the national debt.|
-It provided for surveying the frontier to make settlement simple and legal disagreements over land.
-It made a provision for funding public education.
|Northwest Ordinance|| -It established procedures for territories becoming states on an equal basis with the existing states.|
-It forbade slavery in the Old Northwest.
|Shays's Rebellion||-Captain Daniel Shay led a rebellion starting in Massachusetts to protect farmers from losing their farms due to mortgage foreclosures and also failing to pay taxes.|
-Demanded cheap paper money, lower taxes, and no mortgage foreclosures.
-This frightened the class with property and also showed the need for a strong central government.
|Great Compromise|| -(Connecticut Plan) gave larger states representation by population in the House of Reps. while smaller states equal representation in the Senate. |
-Each state had two senators.
-Every tax measure must originate in the House because large states would have to pay more taxes than smaller states.
|Three-Fifths Compromise|| -Southern States wanted slaves to count for representation in the House but not for taxation, northerners wanted the opposite.|
-Slaves would be counted as three-fifths of a person for both taxation and representation.
|Slave Trade Compromise|| -Congress could not ban the slave trade until 1808.|
-the Constitution forbade people from blocking the return of runaway slaves to another state.
-Slavery remained banned in the Old Northwest.
|Separation of Powers|| -Limited the power of any one part of the government, separated among three branches.|
-Legislative branch, or Congress, makes laws.
-Executive branch, or the President, carries out laws.
-Judicial branch, settles disputes by interpreting laws.
|Checks and Balances|| -President can veto legislation, nominate judges, and grand pardons.|
-Congress can override vetoes, reject presidential appointments, ratify/reject treaties, and impeach members of the other two branches.
-Judicial branch can declare laws and presidential actions unconstitutional.
|Necessary and Proper Clause||-Also known as the elastic clause, grants Congress the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers"|