Crime Scene Investigation

Created by scnavarro94 

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How do you collect a bloody knife?

Cardboard box

How do you collect a accelerant canister?

Large plastic container with a sealed lid

How do you collect a paper that smells like gasoline?

Small plastic Ziploc bag

How do you collect a strand of hair?

Extra-small paper envelope

How do you collect a handwritten note?

Medium paper bag

Inductive Reasoning

Using experiences, skills, and observation to draw a conclusion/generalization (NOT GOOD)

Ex: If 12 desks in the room are made of wood, then all of the desks in the room are made of wood

Deductive Reasoning

Applying a conclusion/generalization to a specific example

Ex: If all of the desks in the room are made of wood, then the one with the carved initials on it is also made of wood

Abductive Reasoning

One seeks to explain relevant evidence by beginning with some commonly well known facts that are already accepted and then working towards an explanation.

Ex: If 1000 crime scenes have evidence left behind from the perpetrator, then ALL crime scenes have evidence left behind from the perpetrator, and therefore, next week's crime scene will have evidence left behind from the perpetrator

The most successful and effective crime scene investigators have..

1) Open-mindedness
2) Free-thinking skills
3) Healthy Skepticism

What do most successful and effective crime scene investigators not have?

Tunnel-vision

The dialog that lawyers engage in with prospective jurors to determine if they are competent to serve in a trial is:

Voire Dire

What is Voire Dire?

A preliminary examination of prospective jurors or witnesses under oath to determine their competence or suitability

What is the most essential safety concern that investigators have while processing a bloody crime scene?

AIDS/HIV and Hepatitis B

When are toxic gases and fluids a primary concern for investigators?

While investigating a clandestine drug lab

Which of the following is not one of the required methods of documenting a crime scene?

a) photography/videography
b) sketches
c) voice recording
d) notes

Voice Recording

What is the purpose for closely documenting a crime scene? (name 3)

1) To be certain that all evidence has been collected
2) For use during the criminal trial
3) For crime scene reconstruction

When collecting biological evidence, how should you package it?

First, air dry completely, then package it in a breathable container/bag

When collecting trace evidence, how should you package it?

Use tape and adhere it to an index card for future analysis

When collecting arson/explosive evidence, how should you package it?

Immediately seal it in an air-tight canister

Besides collecting evidence samples from the crime scene, you must also collect ___________ samples for comparison

Control

For a judge to sign a warrant there must be...

A probable cause

What is the DNA evidence database called?

CODIS: Combined DNA Index System

What is the Fingerprint evidence database called?

AFIS: Automatic Fingerprint Identification System

What is the Firearms evidence database called?

GRCF: General Rifling Characteristics File

What database is used for comparing violent crimes such as serial murder and/or sexual assault?

VICAP: Violent Criminal Apprehension Program

When an eye-witness gives their account of what took place during a crime, this is called

Testimonial Evidence

"You have the right to remain silent" is an example of

Miranda Rights

This person must establish his or her credibility in court through credentials, background, and experience; or they may not be allowed to testify

Expert Witness

The "general acceptance" test for evidence refers to

The Frye standard

What is the Frye standard?

scientific evidence presented to the court must be interpreted by the court as "generally accepted" by a meaningful segment of the associated scientific community

What are two requirements of evidence admitted into court according to Daubert Ruling?

1) The method of testing is peer reviewed
2) The evidence has a measurable error rate

What is the Daubert standard?

An updated revision of the Frye Standard for scientific validity, which implicitly declares classical definition of the scientific method

1) Testify
2) Peer-reviewed
3) Rate of Error must be given (Exception to rule #3: Fingerprints are the oldest for of evidence)

The standard used today by which evidence is judged and determined whether admitted into court is

The Daubert standard

The written record of who has possession of the evidence at all times is called the

Chain-of-Custody

What is chain-of-custody?

A written record of all people who have had possession of an item of evidence.

It is to ensure validity and avoid contaminations so they should know what person touched evidence and how they handled it

The most reliable form of evidence is

Eye-witness

Which of the following is an example of a control sample?

a) DNA from the crime scene
b) Stray hair on victim's body
c) Fiber from a suspect's sweater
d) Fingerprint from the doorknob at the crime scene

Stray-hair from victim's body

When arriving to a crime scene as the first responder, your first step is to __________.

Secure and isolate the crime scene

What would allow investigators to enter a house without a search warrant? (2 things)

1) A glove in the car parked outside
2) Blood on an outside doorknob

A knife with the victim's blood and the suspect's fingerprints on it are considered 2 types of evidence...

Physical and Testimonial

O.J Simpson: What time did the murders "most likely" occur?

10:15pm

O.J Simpson: How do we know the approximate time of the murders?

Neighbors heard dog cries

What time was O.J "unaccounted for"? (After he had dinner with Kaelin up until he opened the door for Allan Park)

9:45pm-11:30pm

Motive

A reason to commit the crime

Means

The ability (weapon, tool, strength)

Opportunity

A time (Alibi) to commit the crime (piece of evidence that one was elsewhere)

First Responder

Has to secure the crime scene by getting barricades, putting yellow tape around, along with orange cones, and getting police officers

Crime Scene Investigator

Has to take notes, take photographs, and sketch what the scene is like. They also have to collect all the evidence that is presented. They have to make sure that they wear gloves, so that it doesn't get contaminated.

O.J Simpson: Describe one reason why the glove was discredited as evidence

"If it doesn't fit, you must aquit!" - Johnny Cocheran

O.J Simpson: Describe one reason why the sock was discredited as evidence

Blood smeared inside the sock and was contaminated

O.J Simpson: Describe one reason why the blood on the back gate of Nicole Brown Simpson's condominium was discredited

The blood does not prove that O.J had actually murdered her. The blood was also left there a while after the crime scene took place.

Explain what justified Furman in entering O.J's estate without a warrant

Mark Furman saw blood on O.J's white bronco

Describe one of the mistakes made by Dennis Fung (Crime Scene Investigaor) while collecting evidence in this case

Dennis did not wear gloves while collecting the evidence from Rockingham Estate and Bundy Drive and threw them in the trunk of his car for a few days

O.J Simpson: Detective/Investigators

1) Tom Lang
2) Phill Vanhatter
3) Dennis Fung
4) Mark Furman

Forensic Science

Is the study of science to the matters of law

Sprial

Outdoors, wooded area

Quadrant/zone

Car/Vehicle

Grid

Indoor room/warehouse

Strip/line

Open field

What to look for in a breaking and entering crime scene

Window glass, paint, tool marks from items within suspects pocession

Expert Witness

Specially trained to testify in court (Medical Examiner, Blood Spatter Expert)

What to look for in a homicide crime scene

Victims, suspects, others that have been in contact

What to look for in a hit-n-run accident crime scene

Glass, paint, plastic, tire prints from suspect's car

What to look for in a sexual assault case crime scene

Get control samples, victims, suspects, and sexual partner

Miranda Rights

A requirement to warn an arrested suspect of certain rights guaranteed by the constitution

1) Right to remain silent
2) Anything you say can and will be against you
3) Right to an attorney
4) If you answer questions without an attorney you have the right to stop

Circumstantial Evidence

Evidence that is based on inference, rather than personal knowledge or observation. This type of evidence does not prove guilt.

Crime Reconstruction

Building the crime scene to see how it happened

How will you conduct your search? (name 3)

1) Find the location of the crime scene
2) See the size of the crime
3) Vehicle searches

O.J Simpson: The Attorneys

Prosecution: Marcia Clark and Christopher Darden

Defense: "The Dream Team"
Robert Kardashain, Robert Shapiro, F. Lee Bailey, Johnny Chochran, Barry Scheck, Dr. Henry C. Lee (witness)

O.J Simpson: The Judge

Lance A. Ito

Distance between Rockingham Estate (O.J) and Bundy Drive (Nicole)

1.97 miles (7 minutes away from Nicole's house by car)

Evidence in Bundy

. Left hand leather glove
. Bruno Mali Size 12 shoe
. Knit cap with strand of hair
. White envelope w/ glasses
. Blood in back gate
. Blood droplets left of shoe prints
. Fibers from O.J's socks

Evidence in Rockingham

. Right leather glove
. Blood on white bronco
. Blood inside of bronco
. Sock with victim's blood

Year of O.J Simpson Murder

June 12, 1994

NCIC

National Crime Information Center

O.J Simpson: The Witnesses (5 ppl)

1) Kato Kaelin (house guest)
2) Alan Park (limo driver)
3) Neighbors on Bundy Drive
4) Jill Shively (near condo)
5) Allen Wattenberg (ross cutlery owner)

O.J Simpson: Victims

Nicole Brown (wife) and Ronald Goldman (friend)

What went wrong with evidence?

Gloves: "If it doesn't fit you must aquit"
Sock: Blood went through to inside layer (smeared) and contaminated>>could not be presented in court
Blood: High levels of preservative EDTA>> indicated lab sample

Conclusions to the case

O.J was acquitted without taking a stand. Double Jeopardy which meant he wouldn't be back for this case again. Wrote a book about if he did the murder.

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