Chemistry Chapter 10 Gases

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What cause the pressure to increase?

Is caused by the increase in the number of collisions of molecules of air with the inside walls of the object

Pressure

Is defined as the force per unit area on a surface.

Newton (N)

The SI unit for force, it is the force that will increase the speed of a one-kilogram mass by one meter per second each second that the force is applied.

Barometer

A device used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Manometer

Used to measure the pressure of an enclosed gas sample.

Millimeters of mercury

The common unit of pressure, symbolized mm Hg.

Atmosphere of pressure

Is defined as being exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg.

Pascal

Defined as the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter.

Partial pressure

The pressure of each gas in a mixture, of that gas.

Dalton's law of partial pressures

states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.

Boyle's Law

States that the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature. PV=PV

Absolute zero

The temperature -273.15C is given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale.

Charles's law

States that the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature. V/T=V/T

Gay-Lussac's law

The pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature P/T=P/T

Combined gas law

expresses the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas. PV/T=PV/T

Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes of gases

at constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole number.

Avogadro's law

equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules

Standard molar volume of a gas

The volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP, it has been found to be 22.41410L

Ideal gas law

The mathematical relationship among pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas. PV=nRT

Ideal gas constant

the constant R, its value depends on the units chosen for pressure, volume, and temperature.

Diffusion

The gradual mixing of two or more gases due to their spontaneous, random motion.

Effusion

the process whereby the molecules of a gas confined in a container randomly pass through a tiny opening in the container.

Graham's law of effusion

States that the rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses.

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