Real Communication Ch. 3

33 terms by bandnurd 

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Dr. Howard Communication class 101

Language

A system of symbols that we use to think about and communicate experiences and feelings

Denotative Meaning

The basic, consistently accepted definition of a word

Connotative Meaning

The emotional or attitudinal response people have to a word

Cognitive Language

The system of symbols you use to describe people, things, and situations

Grammar

The system of rules of a language that guides the creation of words, phrases, and sentences

Communication Acquisition

The process of learning to use language appropriately and effectively

Informing

Using language to send and receive information

Feelings

Emotions; the use of language to express emotion

Imagining

The ability to think, play, and be creative in communication

Ritualizing

Learning and following the rules for managing conversations and relationships

Abstraction Ladder

A model that ranks communication from specific, which ensures clarity, to general and vague

Evasion

Using unclear or misleading words

Euphemisms

Inoffensive words or phrases that substitute for terms that might be perceived as upsetting.

Slang

Language that is informal, nonstandard, and usually particular to a specific group

Jargon

Technical language that is specific to members of a particular profession, interest group, or hobby

Semantics

The study of the relationships among symbols, objects, people and concepts; the meaning that words have for people

Pragmatics

The ability to use the symbol systems of a culture appropriately

Biased Language

Language that has subtle meanings that influence perception

Politically Correct Language

Language that replaces biased language with more neutral terms

Fact

A statement that is true and verifiable

Opinions

Statements that involve personal evaluations

Inferences

Deductions or conclusions that we make about the facts we observe

Speech Repertoires

Sets of complex language behaviors or options that we draw on to meet the demands of specific situations

High Language

Formal, polite, language, used in business contexts, in the classroom, or even at formal social gatherings

Low Language

Informal language used in casual environments

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

A claim that the words a culture uses influence thinking

Linguistic Determinism

The idea that language influences how we see the world

Linguistic Relativity

The belief that speakers of different languages have different views of the world

High-context Cultures

Cultures that rely more on contextual cues - such as time, place, relationship, and situation - both to interpret meaning and to send subtle messages

Low-context Cultures

Cultures in which individuals use very direct language and rely less on contextual cues for communication information

Accommodation

Changing communication behavior to adapt to other people

Code Switching

A type of accommodation in which communicators change their regular language and slang to fit into a particular group

Style Switching

A type of accommodation in which communicators change their tonality, pitch, rhythm, and inflection to fit into a particular group

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