The sequence of stages from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next generation. (involves reproduction)
One parent produces identical offspring
Two parents produce unique offspring
The fusion of an egg and a sperm cell.
The fertilized egg cell
The complete set of an organism's genes. It is made up of DNa and contains genes.
segments of DNA that code for a particular protein
Prokaryotic cell division. Daughter cells are identical (clones). The bacterial genome is made up of one circular piece of DNA
Change in the nitrogen base sequence of DNA
Bacteria take up DNA from its surroundings
Viruses move DNA from one bacterial cell to another
Bacteria pass DNA from one cell to another via pili
Chromosome Structure in Eukaryotes
a double helix and a nucleosome
DNA wrapped around a protein
is thin, thready and spread out in the nucleus
It's condensed chromatin. Forms when a cell is getting ready to divide. Made up of the arm,centromere,chromatids and telomere
where the genes are located
doubled up DNA
"cap" at the end of the chromosome that is used fro protection.
Made of of interphase, mitosis(mitosis proper and cytokinesis)
where the nucleus and the DNA divide.
Division of the cytoplasm and its contents. Usually occurs around the same time as telophase and results in two identical cells
Subphases of Interphase
G1(growth), S (DNA replication), G2 (more growth)
Functions of Mitosis
Growth,cell maintenance, and asexual reproduction.
Cell growth and the replication of organelles. Chromosomes are duplicated.
The beginning of Mitosis Proper, Chromatin condenses into chromosomes, nucleoli disappear,mitotic spindle forms, and centrioles start to move away.
Nuclear membrane disappears,spindle fibers attach to chromosomes and chromosomes start to move towards the middle of the cell.
Spindle is fully formed, each centromere is attached to a spindle fiber, and centromeres line up at the equator.
Sister chromatids seperate at the centromeres and are moved to opposite poles by the spindle fibers.
Nuclear membrane and chromatin form. Nucleoli reappear and the spindle fibers disappear.
The cell membrane pinches inwards.
are somehow involved in spindle formation.
Built from the inside of the cell to the outer edge.
Plants versus Animal Cells
Cleavage Furrow Cell Plate