What are 3 fundamental issues in development?
#1 - Nature vs. Nurture: Nature and Nurture work together.
#2 - Is Development Continuous? 2 views
stage theories: there are distinct phases to intellectual and personality development continuity: development is continuous
#3 - Stability or Change?
Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different people as we age? Can we change?
What is the stage theory vs. continuity?
Stage Theories: there are distinct phases to intellectual and personality development
Continuity: development is continuous
What are 4 stages of prenatal development?
2) Zygote: a fertilized cell group that becomes increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo
3) Embryo: the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month
4) Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
What are 2 things that can harm a baby's development during pregnancy?
Teratogens: agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. The symptoms include mis-proportioned head
What is the APGAR Score, when does it happen, and who invented it?
One minute and again five minutes after your baby is born, doctors calculate to see how the baby is doing. It's a simple process that helps determine whether your newborn is ready to meet the world without additional medical assistance. Developed by anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar in 1952 and now used in modern hospitals worldwide
What are 6 infant reflexes?
• Rooting: turning the head and opening the mouth in the direction of a touch on the cheek
• Grasping: curling the fingers around an object
• Stepping Reflex: stepping motion that occurs when the sole of the foot touches a hard surface
• Sucking: sucking rhythmically in response to oral stimulation
• Moro (startle reflex): throwing the arms out, arching the back and bringing the arms together as if to hold onto something (in response to loud noise or sudden change in position of the head-pretend drop baby)
• Babinski: fanning and curling toes when foot is stroked
What happens to neurons in a developing brain of a baby?
The developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion 2 months before birth, these neurons are pruned to 23 billion at birth. The greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual to think rationally.
What did Piaget believe?
He believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make.
What is assimilation and accommodation?
Assimilation: involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema)
Accommodation: process of adjusting a schema and modifying it
What is the sensorimotor state?
Babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping
What is object permanence?
Children believe that objects that are out of sight are also out of mind and don't understand that they are permanent. Children younger than 6 months don't grasp reality.
What is egocentrism?
Piaget concluded that preschool children cannot perceive things from another's point of view. Example: When asked to show her picture to mommy, 2 year old Gabriella holds the picture facing her own eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes.
What is the theory of the mind?
Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop the ability to understand another's mental state.
What are the 4 stages of cognitive development that Piaget suggests?
1) Senorimotor: birth-2 yrs experiencing the world through senses and actions. Develop object permanence and stranger anxiety
2) Preoperational: 2-6/7 yrs representing things with words and images. Use intuitive not logical reasoning. Develop pretend play, egocentrism, and language.
3) Concrete operational: 7-11 yrs thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical. Develop conservation, mathematical.
4) Formal operation: 12+ abstract reasoning. Develop abstract logic and potential for mature and moral reasoning
What is autism and why is it increasing/
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other's states of mind. Older pregnant women and have the means to diagnose it.
What was Piaget's theory of development vs. Vygotsky's?
Piaget: a child learns through interaction with the physical environment.
Vygotsky: a child learns through the social environment. A parent's "No, no!" becomes a child's tool for self-control.
What is the zone of proximal development?
The zone between what a child can learn with and without help. (Vygotsky's idea)
What is stranger anxiety?
The fear of strangers that develops at around 8 months. This is the age at which infants form schemas for familiar faces and cannot assimilate a new face.
What did Harlow show about attachment?
Harlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment. Used baby monkey.
What is secure attachment?
Placed in a strange situation, 70% of children explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When their mother leave, they show distress.
What is insecure attachment?
The other 30% of children cling to their mothers or caregivers and are less likely to explore the environment.
What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments?
In such circumstances children become:
3. Unable to develop speech
If parental or caregiving support is deprived for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels.
What is separation anxiety and what can extensive time in daycare do?
It peaks at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care. Quality day care does not harm children's thinking and language skills, but extensive time in day care can increase aggressiveness and defiance
What is the self-concept?
A sense of one's identity and personal worth, emerges gradually around 6 months. Around 15-18 months, children can recognize themselves in the mirror. By 8-10 years, their self-image is stable.
What are the 3 types of parenting?
Authoritarian: Parents impose rules and expect obedience.
Permissive: Parents submit to children's demands.
Authoritative: Parents are demanding but responsive to their children.
What is the difference between individualist identity and collectivist identity?
If a culture nurtures an individual's personal identity, it is said to be individualist, but if a group identity is favored then the culture is described as collectivist.
Individualist cultures (European) raise their children as independent individuals whereas collectivist cultures (Asian, African) raise their children as interdependent.
What did psychologist believe about development and our traits and what do they believe now?
Many psychologists once believed that our traits were set during childhood. Today psychologists believe that development is a lifelong process.
What is adolescence?
A life between childhood and adulthood.
What is puberty?
Adolescence begins with sexual maturation (puberty). Puberty occurs earlier in females (11 years) than males (13 years). Thus height in females increases before males.
What are primary and secondary sexual characteristics?
Primary sexual characteristics: the reproductive organs and external genitalia
Secondary sexual characteristics: the non-reproductive traits such as breasts and hips in girls and facial hair and deepening of voice in boys develop.
What are 4 new abilities to reason that adolescents have?
1. Their own thinking.
2. What others are thinking.
3. What others are thinking about them.
4. How ideals can be reached. They criticize society, parents, and even themselves.
Who dealt with morality?
Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of morality reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as "Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one's life?" He found stages of moral development.
What are Kohlberg's 3 stages of morality?
1. Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward.
2. Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake.
3. Postconventional Morality: Affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles.
What is the difference between moral feeling and moral action?
Moral feeling: is more than moral thinking. When posed with simulated moral dilemmas, the brain's emotional areas only light up when its emotion-driven.
Moral action: involves doing the right thing. People who engage in doing the right thing develop empathy for others and the self-discipline to resist their own impulses.
What are Erikson's 8 stages of psychological development?
1. Infant (to 1 year): Trust vs Mistrust
2. Toddlerhood (1-3yrs): Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
3. Preschooler (3-6yrs): Initiative vs Guilt
4. School-Age Child (6-puberty): Industry vs Inferiority (tries to develop self-worth)
5. Adolescent (teen-20s): Identity vs Role Confusion (tries integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker)
6. Young Adult (20s- early 40s): Intimacy vs Isolation learns to make personal commitment
7. Middle-Age Adult (40s-60s): Generatively vs Stagnation Seeks satisfaction through productivity in career and family
8. Older Adult (60s+): Integrity vs Despair Reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss and preparation for death
What declines in our bodies after mid-20s and around age 50?
Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after the mid-twenties. Around age 50, women go through menopause, and men experience decreased levels of hormones and fertility.
What happens to our bodies after age 70 and 80?
Hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell diminish, as do muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina. After 80, neural processes slow down, especially for complex tasks.
What happens to our memory as we age (still have it but what is harder)?
As we age, we remember some things well. These include recent past events and events that happened a decade or two back. However, recalling names becomes increasingly difficult.
What happens to our intelligence as we age?
Studies suggest that intelligence remains relative as we age. It is believed today that fluid intelligence (ability to reason speedily) declines with age, but crystalline intelligence (accumulated knowledge and skills) does not.
What is fluid intelligence vs. crystalline intelligence?
Fluid intelligence: ability to reason speedily declines with age
Crystalline intelligence: accumulated knowledge and skills, does not decline with age