Earth's Structure: Volcanoes

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26 terms · Lesson 1 - Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Lesson 2 - Volcanic Eruptions Lesson 3 - Volcanic Landforms

crust

Earth's rocky outer layer

plate

one of the large pieces that Earth's crust is broken into

boundary

the line along which something ends

volcano

a mountain that forms in Earth's crust when magma reaches the surface

magma

a molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle

lava

the term used for magma when it reaches Earth's surface

Ring of Fire

a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean

island arc

a string of volcanic islands created along a converging boundary

hot spot

a concentration of heat in the mantle capable of producing magma, which rises to Earth's surface

magma chamber

the area beneath a volcano where magma accumulates

pipe

a long tube that extends from Earth's crust us through the top of the volcano, connecting the magma chamber to Earth's surface

vent

any place where molten rock and gas leave a volcano

lava flow

the spread of lava as it pours out of a vent

crater

a bowl-shaped area that may form at the top of a volcano around the central vent

silica

a material found in magma that forms from oxygen and silicon

pyroclastic flow

the mixture of hot gases, ash, cinders, and bombs that flow down the sides of a volcano when it erupts explosively

dormant

sleeping; expected to awaken in the future and become active

extinct

dead; unlikely to ever erupt again

caldera

the hole left when a volcano collapses

cinder cone

volcanic material that has built up around a vent into a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain

composite volcano

tall, cone-shaped mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash

shield volcano

thin layers of lava pour out of a vent and harden on top of previous layers slowly building a wide, gently sloping mountain

volcanic neck

formed when magma hardens in a volcano's pipe and the surrounding rock later wears away

dike

magma that forces itself across rock layers and then hardens

sill

magma that squeezes between horizontal rock layers and then hardens

batholith

a mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust

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