part of neuron; recieve messages from ther cells
part of neuron; passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons
terminal branches of axon
part of neuron; form junctions with other cells
part of neuron; covers the axon of some neurons (like rubber on electric chords) and speeds up neural impulse fat
nodes of ranvier
part of neuron; part of the axon not protected by myeling
part of neuron; electrical signal traveling down the axon
cell body (SOMA)
part of the neuron; the cell's life support center
polarized; positives outside, negatives inside (Na+ trying to get in)
depolarized; positive inside (doors open and let Na+ in)
no matter how strong the signal is, nothing will happen (Na+ goes out again)
all-or nothing principle
neurons only fire if the incoming messages are in adecuate threshold (if they are strong enough)
chemical substances involved in the transmition of neural impulses from one neuron to another
neurotransmitter; controls muscle contractions. Also helps with memory formation. Lack of it = botulism (muscles stop moving)
neurotransmitter; voluntary movements, learning and memory, emotional arousal. lack of it = parkinson (never stop moving) or schizophrenia (weird emotions)
neurotransmitter; arousal, learning and memory, decrease hunger. lack of it = cocaine and amphetamine
neurotransmitter; emotional arousal and sleep. lack of it = anxiety, insomnia, mood disorders
neurotransmitter; "endogenous morphine" inhibits pain
The Central Nervous System
_____ is made up of the brain and spinal cord
what makes decisions. Composed of neurons, and life sustaining functions of the body
long bundle of nerves
____ of the spinal cord with white matter, composed of myelinard axons. Transmits messages from body to brain and viceversa
_____ of the spinal cord with gray matter, composed of SOMAs neurons. Controls certain reflexes
carry messages from the sense (from spine to the brain). (one of the 3 characteristics of inner section)
carry messages from brain to the periphery of the body (makes de muscle move). (one of the 3 characteristics of inner section)
receive sensory messages. Sends messages to the motor neurons with directions about what to do
(one of the 3 characteristics of inner section)
The Peripheral Nervous System
Allows brain and spinal cord to communicate with sensory systems. Permits to control muscles and glands
autonomic nervous system
involuntary muscles and movements. (breathing, digesting, heart beat, etc). <Peripheral Nervous System>
somatic nervous system
controls senses and skeletal muscles. Voluntary actions (walking, dancing, etc) <Peripheral Nervous System>
fight-flight. heart pumps faster for dealing with stress <autonomic nervous system>
restores energy lost after stressful event <autonomic nervous system>
where nerves cross from one side to another part of the brain. Left works for right side and viceversa. (part of the brain)
relays messages between the cerebellum to cortex (part of the brain)
a system of nerves between hind and mid-brain. Controls arousal and attention (part of the brain)
controls balance and maintains muscle coordination (part of the brain). little brain, most affected by alcohol.
includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus and amygdala. Involved in emotions, motivations and learning. (part of the brain)
relays information from sensory organs ro the cortex (part of the brain and limbic system)
regulates body temperature, thirst, sex, hunger, sleep, walk and emotions. incharge of "biological stuff" (part of the brain and limbic system)
long-term memories. location of objects, sends the for "storage" around the cortex. (part of the brain and limbic system)
responsible for fear and memory of fear. If damaged, fears will decrease. (part of the brain and limbic system)
outermost part of the brain. Grayish pink, because of color of neurons (gray) and small blood vessels (pink)
cortex is divided into 2 ______
thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
higher mental processes, such as speech, planning, decision making, personality, memory. Helps emotions. (part of cortex)
Auditory cortex and auditory cortex association area. Oddly sense of taste also processed here. (part of cortex)
recognition, orientation, movement. Touch, temperature, body position. Somatosensory cortex. (part of cortex)
visual info, in the primary visual cortex. helps identify and make sense of visuals. (part of cortex)
in the frontal lobe of cortex. Response for voluntary movements. Commands to the muscle of the somatic nervous system or peripheral
in the parietal lobe of cortex. Receive info from the body like taste, pain, heat, skin.
responsible for coordination and interpretation and higher mental processing.
left frontal lobe (association area)
Broca's area. devoted to production of speech
left temporal lobe
Wernicke's area. Help us understand the meaning of words. (association area)
organs that secrete chemicals to the body. (ex. salivary and sweat)
glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
controls all endocrine glands. "master gland". located in brain. growth hormone. in charge of function of other glands.
secretes melatonin. primarily at night. influences sleep-wake cycle. located in brain.
secretes thyroxin. regulates metabolism. located in the neck
controls levels of sugar in food. secretes insulin.
everyone had 2 on top of each kidney. stimulates the sympathetic system. produces hormones: corticoides and cortisol
system of organs and chemicals in the body that helps it battle diseases and injuries.
helps body combat diseases and infections