us history from 1877- reconstruction

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Reconstruction and New South

Wade-Davis Bill

July 1864 law pocket vetoed by Lincoln that would have made stringent (& probably unrealistic) requirements for Confederate states' readmission to the Union; would have demanded that more than 50% of a seceded state's population declare loyalty & swear they never supported the Confederacy

Enforcement Acts

1870 and 1871 laws that sought to protect black suffrage in the wake of KKK activities.

Black codes

Reconstruction-era state laws passed under Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction plan that granted freedmen a few basic rights but were more focused on enforcing heavy civil restrictions on them

Carpetbaggers

derogatory name for northerners who moved South during Reconstruction to seek political/economic opportunity & to aid in the rebuilding effort; Southern Democrats considered them opportunists (who left home so quickly that they stuffed all their belongings in rough oversized suitcases)

15th Amendment

(1) amendment ratified in March 1870 that prohibited the denial of voting rights to any citizen based on "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"; (2) not enforced till the 1965 Voting Rights Act

Freedmen's Bureau

government institution established in 1865 and staffed by Union army officers: to protect black rights in the South, to rebuild damaged areas, & to provide employment, medical care, and education to blacks, along with rebuilding

14th Amendment

amendment ratified in July 1868 to (1) guarantee the rights of citizenship to all people, black or white, born or naturalized in the US; (2) also attempted to deny congressional representation for any state that prevented of its male citizens; (3) not fully enforced till the 1960s

Compromise of 1877

(1) the "Hayes-Tilden Compromise"; resolved the conflict arising from the election of 1876, when Samuel Tilden (D) won the popular vote but Republican leaders contested some states' election returns, thereby ensuring Rutherford Hayes's (R) victory; (2) to minimize protest from the Democratic Party, Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction (by removing federal troops from the last two occupied states in the South)

Jim Crow laws

state laws that institutionalized segregation in the South from the after Reconstruction, from the 1880s to the 1960s; along with segregating schools, buses, and other public accommodations, these laws made it difficult or impossible for Southern blacks to vote

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

This southern vigilante group was founded in 1866 in Tennessee, and by 1868, the Klan operated in all Southern states. This group conducted raids and lynchings to intimidate black voters and Republican officials. The group faded away in the late nineteenth century, but resurfaced in 1915 in opposition to everyone except white native-born Protestants. Membership and influence declined again in 1925, when corruption among the group's leaders was exposed.

Panic of 1873

economic crisis that occurred because of over-expansion, over-speculation, the collapse of the nation's largest and many smaller banks, and the collapse of the stock market; a 5-year national depression followed that weakened faith in the nation's Republican leadership

Radical Republicans

minority faction in Congress, led by Congressman Thaddeus Stevens and Senator Charles Sumner, that emerged during the Civil War; they sought to punish the Southern states during Reconstruction, called for civil rights for blacks, and economic reform in the South; a powerful force in Congress until Moderates gained influence the mid-1870s

Reconstruction Act of 1867

law that dismantled the state governments established under Lincoln's and Johnson's plans, arranged military occupation of the former Confederacy, and required state govts to allow black suffrage

Redemption

This political movement was a violent attempt to overturn Reconstruction in the South. This movement involved a shift in power in state governments from Republican to Democratic hands, and a new oppression of freedmen, often at the hands of weapon-toting conservative whites.

Scalawags

derisive term used to describe Southern moderates who cooperated with Republicans during Reconstruction

Sharecropping system

replacement for the plantation system established after the Civil War as the primary method of agricultural production in the South; small farm subdivisions were rented to freedmen in exchange for a share (usually half) of the agricultural goods produced; freedmen gained a only slight independence under this system that kept whites in control of the land

Charles Sumner

(1) leading Radical Republican senator who argued ardently for civil rights for blacks; he later led the abandoned the Radicals after thinking that the Reconstruction goals were accomplished; (2) before the Civil War he was caned by Congressman Preston Brooks

Thaddeus Stevens

leading Radical Republican, a gifted orator and an outspoken legislator devoted to stringent and punitive Reconstruction; Stevens worked toward social & political equality for Southern blacks

Ten percent plan

Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction, a lenient way to readmit Southern states to the Union if a small percentage of each state's voting population took an oath of loyalty to the Union and if the states established new non-Confederate governments; this bill was rejected when Congress proposed its own more punitive plan

Booker T. Washington

founder of the Tuskegee Institute (1881) who adopted a moderate approach to addressing racism and segregation; urged his fellow African Americans to learn vocational skills and to strive for gradual improvement in their social, political, & economic status (rather than pursuing civil rights and political reform).

Reconstruction

(1) an era of controversy (1865-77) following Union victory in the Civil War, when the nation needed to reintegrate the South by allowing the southern states representation in Congress; (2) this era followed three stages, led by the White House, Congress, and finally conservative governments in the Southern states.

Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's (R) vice president, a Democrat who was considered too lenient by the Radical Republicans in Congress during his presidency (1865-69); as a result, Congress fought his initiatives and sought a more punitive Reconstruction plan; his relationship with Congress worsened culminating in his impeachment in 1868—though he was ultimately acquitted.

Liberal Republicans

temporary breakaway party that formed in 1872 in opposition to president Grant's re-election; these politicians argued that the goal of Reconstruction was complete, that Grant was corrupt, and that Congress should seek reconciliation with the south; this defection shattered many Americans' enthusiasm for Reconstruction

Grandfather Clauses

many state constitutions added these amendments to their voting laws beginning in the 1890s as a way of preventing anyone from voting whose ancestor could not vote before 1867; Congress often tolerated these laws until the Supreme Court struck them down in 1915 and until actual enforcement was provided in the 1960s

13th Amendment

amendment that prohibited slavery, ratified on December 6, 1865

W.E.B. Du Bois

(1) African-American leader opposed to Booker T. Washington's gradual approach of achieving equal rights; he advocated immediate equal treatment and equal educational opportunities for blacks (2) part of the Niagara Movement, he helped found the NAACP in 1909 and was the first black man to receive a PhD from Harvard University

Atlanta Compromise

Du Bois and other black leaders used this term to criticize a speech given by Booker T. Washington in which Washington seemed to suggest that blacks would be satisfied even with menial labor and that if blacks could earn steady employment, they wouldn't protest for civil rights

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