ch6 the cell

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cell theory

1. all organisms are made of 1 or more cell
2. cells are the fundamental function and structural unit of life
3. all cells come from pre-existing cells

robert hooke

first to use a microscope, named what he saw "cells" because they were like compartments

TEM (transmission electron microscope)

intermal structures (organelles)

SEM (scanning electron microscope)

surface of cell (outside)

micrograph

photo of view through microscope

plant cll

cell wall, chloroplasts (photosynthesis( and central vacuole

animal cell

flagellum, centriole, and lysosome

prokaryotes

bacteria. no nucleus, dna throughout. reproduces asexually

eukaryotes

nucleus

cell (plasma) membrane

selectively permeable membrane. thin layer that determines what goes in and out. phospholipid bi-layer.

passive transport

no energy is expended. high - low.

diffusion

net movement of particles from a high to low concentration side

facilitated diffusion

uses transport proteins because some are too big to pass through the membrane

active transport

cells expend energy to move molecules. low - high. proteins are involved. Na-K pump. uses ATP

osmosis

passive transport of WATER across a selectively permeable membrane

hypertonic solutions

high concentration of solute. low amount of water.

hypotonic solutions

low concentration of solute. high amount of water.

isotonic solutions

equal solute and water amounts

lysed

hypotonic solutions, water pops animal cell

plasmolysis

cell membrane in plant cell shrivels away from cell wall from lack of water.

turgid

normal state for plant cell (hypotonic solution)

vacuole

holds water

vesicles

small membrane sacs. transfer molecules in and out of cell. form by the cell membrane or some organelles inside

endocytosis

process that brings materials into the cell

exocytosis

process that brings materials out of the cell

phagocytosis

way to obtain FOOD by extending cytoplasm

pinocytosis

way to bring in LIQUIDS

nucleus

control center of cell. sends messages, surrounded by a double membrane

nucleolus

rich in RNA, ribosomes are produced.

chromatin

consists of DNA bound to a protein, when cell prepares to divide, fibers coil up as separate structures called chromosomes.

ribosomes

make proteins (on nucleus). made up of 2 subunits. types: bound (on ER, nucleus) and suspended (in cytoplasm)

ER

main manufacturing and transportation facilities in the cell, maze of membranes. types: rough and smooth

rough ER

close to nucleus. protein synthesis, continuous w/ nuclear membrane. has ribosomes on it. where lipid components of cell membrane are assembled. form vesicles where large molecules are transported to other cell parts

smooth ER

no ribosomes. continuous with rER, contains enzymes that make membrane lipids (phospholipids) and detox. of drugs. in liver cells, steroids, ovaries and testes

golgi apparatus

flattens sac. proteins reduced in the rER move to GA thru vesicles. modifies, sorts and packages proteins from ER for storage in cell or secretion outside cell

lysosomes

contains digestive enzymes that can break down macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. recycle cellular material and destroy non-functional organelles

peroximes

rich in hydrogen peroxide. in liver help detoxify alcohol and other harmful components.

plastids

special organelles in plant cells. chloropasts, chromosplasts, leukoplasts

chloroplast

where photosynthesis takes place. green pigment- chlorophyll

chromoplast

enriched pigments (fruit and flower colors)

leukoplasts

non-pigmented. in roots. stores starch, lipids, and proteins

mitochondria

site for cellular respiration

cytoskeleton

cytoplasm. made of microtubles, microfillaments, intermediate filaments

cilia

short, many, in protists, hair like, in lungs.

flagella

long, few, whip like, sperm

centrioles

in animal cells. pairs. responsible for cell division

cell wall

supports and protects cell

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