a molecule with a skeleton made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms
____________ can form the greatest number of molecules than any other element because of the ______ valence electrons
Covalent bonding is relatiely strong or weak?
Single covalent bonds are flexible and double or triple covalent bonds are stronger, but rigid
What is the difference between single covalent bonds and double or triple covalent bonds?
very large molecules can be formed with this element
this consists only of hydrogen and carbon
What is the simplest and one of the longer hydrocarbon chains?
an organic molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and is represented as a ring structure
compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas
glucose and fructose (C6H2O6)
What is an example of some isomers?
large molecules produced by linking small organic compounds
Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids
What are the 4 major classes of organic compounds?
What is the monomer for carbohydrates?
disaccharides and polysaccharides
What is the polymer for carbohydrates?
glycerol and fatty acids
What is the monomer for lipids?
mono,di,triglycerides and phospholipids
What is the polymer for lipids?
What is the monomer for proteins?
peptides, polypeptides, proteins
What is the polymer for proteins?
What is the monomer for nucleic acids?
nucleic acids DNA and RNA
What is the polymer for nucleic acids?
condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis)
a molecule of water is removed or taken out form a new bond which results in covalent linkage
a molecule of water is added to break the bond down
has a 1C:2H:1O ratio
the most abundant group of organic compounds on earth
function as cellular fuels, energy storage
1.) monosaccharides 2.) disaccharides 3.) polysaccharides
What are the three subclasses of carbohydrates?
contains 3 to 7 carbon atoms and consists of the pentose and hexose sugars
formed when two monosaccharides combine
glucose + glucose
glucose + galactose
glucose + fructose
the most abundant type of carbohydrate
straight or branched long-chain macromolecules
starch, glycogen, and cellulose
What are the three types of polysaccharides?
a polymer of 2 glucose used by plants for energy storage
a different type of a polymer used by animals for energy storage
a plymer of b glucose, a plant structural component and is the most abundant type of carbohydrate
fats that consist of mainly Carbon and Hydrogen with a few oxygen. They are hydrophobic and hydrophilic and are heterogeneous.
neutral fats, phospholipids, cartenoids, and steroids
What are the 4 subclasses of lipids?
What are the function of lipids?
long unbranched hydrocarbon chains with a COOH group of one end before condensation. They provide more energy because of the C-H bond
the general structure of a fatty acid
ampiphatic lipids that consists of a glycerol, 2 fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing organic base, and is composed of C, H, O, N, and P