Sumerian garment. A long, shaggy skirt. It was made of hanks of wool fastened in horizontal lines like coarse fringe on cloth, or perhaps twisted locks of wool, still fastened to the hide. Sometimes it covered the left shoulder.
A sewn tunic, the basic female garment. A type of sheath dress, it sometimes ends below the breasts and has one or two straps.
A wrapped skirt, the length, width and fit of which varied with different time periods and social classes. The basic masculine garment, schenti is also used by some costume historians to describe the loincloth.
Belt, that which encircles or girds.
The artificial beard worn by Egyptian King or Queen, often made of leather.
Wrapped headdress worn by kings. (headcloth on head of the Sphinx).
The plant from which linen comes from.
A mineral powder used as eyeliner, while a cosmetic for accentuating eyes it was also used to help protect from the glare of the sun.
Straight loose fitting basic garment, usually sewn up the sides with hole for neck, basic t-shape.
Tunic type garment worn next to skin by men or women, one or two rectangles held together with pins, occasionally sewn up on sides.
Sleeveless style of chiton with deep overfold at top, fastened with fibula at shoulder.
Sleeved style of chiton, longer, fuller fastened with many small brooches at shoulder.
Pin or brooch. Similar to modern safety pin.
Archaic style of Chiton worn by women. Close fitting, made of wool, held together at shoulder with one straight pin.
Short chiton, fastened on one shoulder, worn by working class men or athletes.
Mantle in from of a rectangular shawl, made of wool or linen, usually white with border. Draped over left shoulder and wrapped under right arm. Worn by men and women.
Cloak, short oblong shaped cloth wrapped around body and fastened in front or at one shoulder with fibula.
Low-crowned, broad-brimmed hat.
Greek for a loincloth, worn by men either as undergarment or for athletic contests.
Breastplate, originally made of leather, worn by soldiers.
An Etruscan semi-circular cape; fore-runner of the Roman Toga.
Vertical border or stripe ornamenting Etruscan tunics. Romans later used clavi during the republic to symbolize rank-vertical stripes extended from shoulders to hem of tunics varying in width, most were reds and purples. Higher ranking wore broad purple bands.
Etruscan hollow, circular locket or pendant; worn in multiples by both men and women. Later adopted by Romans as locket given to a freeborn boy filled with charms against the evil eye.
Derived from Greek Chiton. Worn as an indoor garment by Romans and outdoor garment by working class.
Roman copy of Greek Chiton, worn by women.
Worn as undergarment by Roman women.
Latin term for Loincloth, worn by men, working garment for slaves.
Undergarment worn by women, wide band of fabric wrapped around breasts for support. Also worn for exercise.
Loose Roman mantle of wool cut in semi-circle or ellipse; approximately 16 feet across by six feet in depth. Draped around the body starting with one point just above the left ankle, the straight edge facing toward center front, the mass of material carried up over the left shoulder, downward under the right arm, upward across the chest to cover the left shoulder a second time, and downward to ankle length in back. Modified in size to form larger IMPERIAL TOGA. White toga was badge of Roman citizenship, Purple toga reserved for Emperor.
A white toga with a purple border, reserved for ruling class.
Roman copy of Greek Himation: worn by women as outer wrap.
A heavy wool cloak, semi-circular in shape, opened down center front and usually worn with a separate hood. Worn by men, becomes COPE.
Molded breast plate (cuirass) of brass or bronze worn by Roman soldiers over leather jacket that had straps of leather extending over thigh and shoulder.
Basic garment for men; varied in length and proportion of cut
Tunic initially worn by Romans as ungirdled outer garment. Cut with full straight open sleeves (T-shaped); its clavi extended from shoulder to hem; usually two broad bands paralleled the bottom edge of the sleeves. Survives as ecclesiastic garment of the same name.
Ornamentation; isolated squares and roundels filled with pattern were placed on the shoulders and front of the tunic or dalmatic.
A long white tunic worn by clergy; narrow sleeves, slit for head, tied with a belt (girdled).
Worn by upper class men and the empress. Floor length mantle fastened over the right shoulder with a jeweled brooch (based on Roman Paludamentum originally adapted from Greek Chlamys). Color and decoration set by rank, purple reserved for the Emperor and Empress.
Excessively rich ornamental plaques (oblong or rectangular in shape) place on the open back and front edges of the paludamentum; embroidered and jeweled.
Adaptation of Western Roman pallium that was based on Greek Himation. Worn by archbishops as part of vestments distinguishing their office. All excess material was removed until the pallium formed a long, narrow band draped about the shoulders. The royal counterpart was the LORUM.
A panel which resulted from the folding and eventual elimination of the excess material of the Roman pallium. Worn exclusively by the Emperor and Empress. It went through several versions over the centuries:
1. A very long, narrow panel of even width with its full length decorated with embroidery or jeweled; draped about the body in the same order as the himation.
2.A panel of greater width which, instead of being draped about the body, had an aperture for the head; worn poncho style.
3. Worn in conjunction with the broad Byzantine collar, the SUPERHUMERAL.
Ecclesiastical vestment, round poncho like cape worn over the head. Worn over the tunic and Dalmatic.
The patterned yoke or collar on the outer garments, heavily jeweled.
Loose fitting linen breeches fastened at the waist with a belt. Derives from the Roman word BRACCAE for Barbarian trousers.
Hose, often ending at mid-thigh and fastened to the drawers; often had soft leather sole attached.
Undershirt or undertunic, loose-fitting linen garment, women's cut longer than men's.
A new long outer body garment; a combination of separate upper and lower sections joined with a seam at a low waistline. Tight fitting torso, pleated skirt. Worn by upper class, both men and women. Fastened with snug lacing up the back or under each arm; one of the first garments to depend on fit as well as cut.
13th Century term for tunic, worn as an undergarment, dolman sleeves, cut in one piece with garment.
A SURCOAT (outer tunic) adopted during the crusades. A long panel, shoulder width, worn by men and women.
Term for outdoor wrap; replacing Paludamentum and Chlamys.
A plain white cap tied under the chin.
A shaped piece of linen which was draped about the throat and drawn upward around the face. Often a separate band of cloth passed across the forehead concealing the hairline. Veil put on over the head and held in place by a circlet sometimes. Headdress worn in variety of ways often omitting one of the three basic pieces.
A standing linen band, rather like a crown worn with barbette.
A linen chin band worn with a fillet.
Multi-colored and multi-patterned costumes resulting from the use of Heraldic devices that often recorded successive marriages of a family.
A form of jacket, long enough to extend down over the thighs, tapered to fit waistline and expertly cut. Originated as padded and quilted jacket worn under plate armor.
For men: an abbreviated derivative of the cote or tunic, worn over the pourpoint; often had scalloped or dagged eges.
For women: A well-fitted one-piece dress with flaring skirt achieved through gores or godets inserted into skirt; tight fitting around shoulder, waist and hips, could be laced or hooked up either front or back.
Full length, one-piece outer garment with full and bulky or tight -fitting sleeves, and extremely full skirt with train. Skirt and sleeves sometimes lined with fur. Originally belted low on men; belted high on women. Originally had a high collar. Later versions for men had a variety of lengths.
SIDELESS SURCOTE OR GOWN
Derived from Cyclas; a surcoat with side seams sewed up from hip to floor; wide armholes created from shoulder to hip. Sometimes severely cut to form a violin-shaped garment. Worn by women.
Underdress worn by women; actually underwear.
Developed from the cyclas; opened at the sides, emblasoned with the arms of the sovereign; official garment of the Heralds.
The edge of fabric cut into scallops or serrated; prevalent trim. In use after the invention of shears.
Long narrow streamers attached to sleeves; often hung to knees; originated with Knight wearing his lady's colors tied to his arm.
Extended peak of hood to form a long, slender tube.
Piece of cloth enveloping the throat and chin up to the ears; distinguished from the wimple as latter extended upward to top of head.
Very tall, pointed headdress; cone shaped; truncated in Northern variations. Worn back on the head; sometimes almost parallel to the ground. A band of contrasting color or white framed the front of the henin and the face. Wispy veil attached to the tip.
Abnormally long pointed shoes; toes stuffed with moss or whalebone to retain shape. Also called CRACKOWE.
Separate wooden sole fastened to boot or shoe by leather straps. Worn by men and women to keep feet out of mud. Ancestor of the clog.
Laws passed attempting to limit the use of specific materials and forms of costume by the nobility. The prosperous merchant class did not always comply.