MT-100 - AP1 - CH 7 Review: Muscular System

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Basic terminology of the muscular system

The point of contact between the nerve and the muscle fibers it stimulates is called a:

Neuromuscular junction

A single motor neuron with all the muscle cells it innervates is called a:

Motor unit

What is a single nerve fiber that carries an impulse (action potential) to muscle fibers called?

Motor neuron

What is a chemical messenger that jumps the synaptic cleft called?

Neurotransmitter

The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract is called:

a threshold stimulus.

When a muscle fiber is stimulated it will contract to its fullest ability. This is called:

the all-or-none law.

Which are the three types of muscle fibers?

Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

Name three overall effects of tonic contracture.

Counteract the pull of gravity
Provides stability
Maintains posture and upright position

During tonic contracture, the muscle is said to undo go what type of contraction?

Partial contraction

What is fatigue defined as in muscle physiology?

Oxygen debt

What else do we call skeletal muscle?

Striated and voluntary

What else do we call smooth muscle?

Visceral and involuntary

What else do we call cardiac muscle?

Striated and involuntary

What special feature does cardiac muscle fiber have?

Intercalated discs

Tendons attach muscle to:

bone.

Ligaments attach bone to:

bone.

What is the name of the fascia that surrounds a functional muscle group?

Deep fascia

What fascia surrounds a whole muscle?

Epimysium

What fascia surrounds a muscle fiber fascicle?

Perimysium

If the prime mover flexes a joint, then the antagonist:

will relax. And also partially help control the movement.

The muscle attachment to the more stationary bone is called the:

origin.

What are the fluid-filled sacs that act as lubricating structures for reducing friction during muscle movement called?

Bursae

Actin and myosin are proteins that form chains called:

Myofilaments

The thin myofilaments inside the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle cells are called:

actin.

The thick myofilaments inside the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle cells are called:

myosin.

What is the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscles called?

Sarcomere

Generally speaking, what happens to the Z-lines when muscle contraction occurs?

They are pulled closer together.

According to the sliding filament model, in order for a sarcomere to contract, what three things need to happen?

Calcium must be released from the endoplasmic reticulum
ATP must be broken down to release energy
Bridges must form between the actin and myosin myofilaments

What related muscles have to all undergo some type of contraction in order to produce smooth movement?

Prime mover, synergist, stabilizers (fixators), and antagonists

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