This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
1733, a Brit who invented the fly shuttle. Made it possible for one person instead of two to operate a loom in textile manufacturing. It increased the output of woven material and therefore also the demand for yarn.
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
In 1709, ___ used coal to smelt iron, or separate iron from its ore. When he discovered that coal gave off impurities that damaged the iron, __ found a way to remove the impurities from coal, leading to better quality/ cheaper iron.
In the 1780s, Cort developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke (made from coal, not the drink or drug). Cort also developed heavy-duty steam-powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing out finished iron in every shape and form.
a Scottish engineer that equipped road beds with a layer of large stones for drainage and on top placed a layer of smoother rocks, prevented heavy wagons from sinking into the mud
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
inherited steel making business from his father and soon bought coal and iron mines to control the steel industry in Germany.
1814, a Brit who built the first successful steam locomotive. By 1829 his Rocket travelled on the world's first railroad line from Manchester to Liverpool at average speed of 16mph. By the 1840s the era of railroad construction had begun in Europe and the US.
The Crystal Palace
A place where all new inventions were displayed
Factory Act of 1802
Pushed through by elder Robert Peel - a cotton magnate himself. Was supposed to regulate working conditions of pauper children but not enforceable - no inspectors. England short of bureaucrats to deal with effects of industrialization. Belief in local self management was strong among the rising industrialist class.
Factory Act of 1833
limited the factory workday for children between 9 and 13 to 8 hours and that of adolescents between 14 and 18 to 12 hours-made no effort to regulate hours of work for children at home or in small businesses-children under 9 were to be enrolled by schools to be established by factory owners-broke pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers
The pessimistic view of Malthus and Ricardo was accepted and reinforced by ____________ (1820-1895), the future revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx. After studying working conditions in northern England, this young middle-class German published in 1844, The Condition of the Working Class in England, and a blistering indictment of the middle classes. The new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of the cottage workers and agricultural laborers, according to Engels. The culprit was industrial capitalism, with its relentless competition and constant technical change. Engels' extremely influential charge of the middle-class exploitation and increasing worker poverty was embellished by Marx and later socialists. (743)
A system developed in England in 1795 of supplementing the income of all poor people so that everyone would have what was deemed the minimum income necessary for survival. It was a failure because there were no work incentives
Poor Law of 1834
Legislation that restricted the number of poverty stricken eligible for aid, ended the Speenhamland system
Industrial city in Northern England, which greatly increased in population during the Industrial Revolution. Because of the Rotten Boroughs, its interests were underrepresented in Parliament during the early 19th century.
British political observer who wrote of the frenzied reaction in America to the death of Louis XVI
Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon
who is called the founder of French socialism, argued that a brotherhood of man must accompany the scientific organization of industry and society. He proposed that production and distribution be carried out by the state, and that allowing everyone to have equal opportunity to develop their talents would lead to social harmony, and the traditional state could be virtually eliminated, or transformed. "Rule over men would be replaced by the administration of things
French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
Factory owner, concerned with mistreatment of workers. organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the GNCTU, or Grand National Consolidated Trades Union. Helped pass Factory Act of 1833, limiting work hours.
French philosopher and utopian socialist who was the first to coin the term "communist." His Travels in Icaria depicted an ideal society in which an elected government controlled all economic activity and supervised social affairs.
A Paris journalist, editor of Revue de Progres and author of Organization of Work. Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization(recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie).
This socialist man believed that property is theft
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.