Barnett Test (kingddom protist and monera)

Created by alexroxlol101 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Kingdom Fungi

-always heterotroph
-unicellular or multicellular
-cell wall made up of chitin
-ex: yeast, mushromom
-largest organism on the planet is fungi

Kingdom Monera

-prokaryote
-heterotrophic and autotrophic
-unicellular
-cell wall made up of peptidoglycan
-ex: escherichia colid, staphylococcus ayreus

kingdom plantae

-eukaryote
-always heterotrophic
-always multicellular
-cell wall made up of cellulose
-ex: trees, grass

kingdom animalia

-eukaryote
-always heterotrophic
-always multicellular
-cell wall absent
-ex: bony fish, insects

kingdom protista

-eukaryote
-heterotrophic or autotrophic organisms
-unicellular or multicellular organisms
-cells made with many different materials
-2 main groups: protozoa and algae
-protozoa: animal like
-algae: plant like

4 questions used to characterize the members of the 5 kingdoms

1. are organisms in the kingdom composed of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells?
2. are the organisms in the kingdom unicellular or multicellular
3. are the organisms in the kingdom autotrophic or heterotrophic
4. do the organisms in the kingdom have cell walls? if so, composed of what?

binomial nomenclature

-2 name system fro writing scientific names
-species name is written second (never capitalized)
-both words are italicized if typed and if written then underlined

3 domain system

-archaea, bacteria, eukarya
-developed using molecular observations
-developed by comparing the DNA sequences of organisms to determine relatedness
-developed by carl woess in 1970s

antibiotic

chemicals produced by living organisms such as bacteria or fungi, that inhibit or kill micro organisms.

pathogen

bacteria that cause disease

gram positive

produces a think layer of peptidoglycan (cell wall material)

gram negative

produces a thin layer of peptidoglycan (cell wall material)

cocci

round or spherical

bacillus

rod shaped

3 shapes of bacteria

-cocci
-bacillus
-spiral

peptioglycan

a protein/sugar compound that is not found in eukaryotic cells

plasmids

extra piece of DNA that is transferred to another baterium by conjugation

why are organisms in kingdom monera the most successful on the plant?

-oldest organisms (4.5 billion years ago)
-inhibit every environment on earth
-more individuals in kingdom monera than in all the other kingdoms combined

bacterial adaptations

-endospore
-glycocalyx
-fimbrae

endospore

-bacterial "hibernation"
-these can live for years (sometimes 1000s of years) without food or watrer
-very difficult to destroy

glycocalyx

-sticky carbohydrate covering
-allows bacteria to stick to the surface of host cells
-this allows bacteria to be "invisible" to host white blood cells
-covers up for itself

fimbrae

-spikes that allow bacteria to stick to it's environment

how do bacteria reproduce

-bacteria reproduce asexually by the process of binary fission

binary fission

produces 2 genetically identical cells from a parent cell.

how do bacteria become genetically diverse?

bacteria becomes genetically diverse by the process of conjugation and transformation

conjugation

1 bacterium passes genes found on a special piece of DNA (called a plasmid) to another bacteria

transformation

bacteria can pick up and incoperate genes from fragments of DNA found in the environment. these pieces are "left overs" from the dead bacteria

how are bacteria classified?

-cell wall
-shape
-motility

major groups of protists

protists are incredibly varied and resemble other kingdoms but dont quite fit.
-animal-like
-plant-like
-fungi-like

protozoa

-animal-like
-no cell wall
-very mobile and our predatory
-move by flagella, cillia or pseudopodia
-also non-mobile type of protozoa

algae

-plant-like protists
-contain a cell wall and chloroplasts
-unicellular or multicellular
-move using cillia or flagella
-multicellular types of this are not structured like plants, they do not have roots, stems and leaves

fungus-like protists

include slime molds

general characteristics of protists

-both are multicellular and unicellular and free living
-have the typical eukaryotic structures with an internal membrane, nucleus, surrounded by a nuclear envelope and organelles like the mitochondria and chloroplast
-some protists are colonial - organisms consisting of similar or identical cells
-both autotrophic and heterotrophic

3 lifestyle are used to classify protists

-animal-like protists
-plant-like protists
-fungi-protists

general characteristics of protozoa

-"animal-like protists" are hetertroph
-they eat bacteria, other protists and nonliving organic matter
-lack a cell wall
-inhabit aquatic environment
-some live in body fluids of living hosts
-heterotroph

4 main groups of protozoa

-Protozoans with flagella
-protozoans with cillia
-protozoans with pseudopia
-protozoans with lacking motility

protozoans with flagella

(zooflagellates) means they moves by means of 1 or 2 flagellates. They usually reproduce asexually by binary fission. Most are free-living

protozoans with cillia

named for use of hair-like projections called cillia that that help them move and feed

protozoans with pseudopia

"Ameoba" moves and feeds by means of temporary extensions of the cytoplasm or plasma membrane.

protozoans lacking motility

parasite with no means of active motility. non motile

general characteristics of slime molds

-heterotrophic
-decomposers
-multicellular and unicellular
-common where there is decaying matter

general characteristics of algae

-contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis
-make their own food
-most are unicellular, some multicellular
-live in colonies

zooplankton

animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
-microscopic heterotrophic protists surrounded in an aquatic environment.

phytoplankton

algae and cyanobacteria that carry out photosynthesis
-lives in an aquatic environment
-type of plankton
-microscopic

universal naming system

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

bioremediation

using bacteria to clean up pollutants

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set