Barnett Test (kingddom protist and monera)

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Kingdom Fungi

-always heterotroph
-unicellular or multicellular
-cell wall made up of chitin
-ex: yeast, mushromom
-largest organism on the planet is fungi

Kingdom Monera

-heterotrophic and autotrophic
-cell wall made up of peptidoglycan
-ex: escherichia colid, staphylococcus ayreus

kingdom plantae

-always heterotrophic
-always multicellular
-cell wall made up of cellulose
-ex: trees, grass

kingdom animalia

-always heterotrophic
-always multicellular
-cell wall absent
-ex: bony fish, insects

kingdom protista

-heterotrophic or autotrophic organisms
-unicellular or multicellular organisms
-cells made with many different materials
-2 main groups: protozoa and algae
-protozoa: animal like
-algae: plant like

4 questions used to characterize the members of the 5 kingdoms

1. are organisms in the kingdom composed of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells?
2. are the organisms in the kingdom unicellular or multicellular
3. are the organisms in the kingdom autotrophic or heterotrophic
4. do the organisms in the kingdom have cell walls? if so, composed of what?

binomial nomenclature

-2 name system fro writing scientific names
-species name is written second (never capitalized)
-both words are italicized if typed and if written then underlined

3 domain system

-archaea, bacteria, eukarya
-developed using molecular observations
-developed by comparing the DNA sequences of organisms to determine relatedness
-developed by carl woess in 1970s


chemicals produced by living organisms such as bacteria or fungi, that inhibit or kill micro organisms.


bacteria that cause disease

gram positive

produces a think layer of peptidoglycan (cell wall material)

gram negative

produces a thin layer of peptidoglycan (cell wall material)


round or spherical


rod shaped

3 shapes of bacteria



a protein/sugar compound that is not found in eukaryotic cells


extra piece of DNA that is transferred to another baterium by conjugation

why are organisms in kingdom monera the most successful on the plant?

-oldest organisms (4.5 billion years ago)
-inhibit every environment on earth
-more individuals in kingdom monera than in all the other kingdoms combined

bacterial adaptations



-bacterial "hibernation"
-these can live for years (sometimes 1000s of years) without food or watrer
-very difficult to destroy


-sticky carbohydrate covering
-allows bacteria to stick to the surface of host cells
-this allows bacteria to be "invisible" to host white blood cells
-covers up for itself


-spikes that allow bacteria to stick to it's environment

how do bacteria reproduce

-bacteria reproduce asexually by the process of binary fission

binary fission

produces 2 genetically identical cells from a parent cell.

how do bacteria become genetically diverse?

bacteria becomes genetically diverse by the process of conjugation and transformation


1 bacterium passes genes found on a special piece of DNA (called a plasmid) to another bacteria


bacteria can pick up and incoperate genes from fragments of DNA found in the environment. these pieces are "left overs" from the dead bacteria

how are bacteria classified?

-cell wall

major groups of protists

protists are incredibly varied and resemble other kingdoms but dont quite fit.


-no cell wall
-very mobile and our predatory
-move by flagella, cillia or pseudopodia
-also non-mobile type of protozoa


-plant-like protists
-contain a cell wall and chloroplasts
-unicellular or multicellular
-move using cillia or flagella
-multicellular types of this are not structured like plants, they do not have roots, stems and leaves

fungus-like protists

include slime molds

general characteristics of protists

-both are multicellular and unicellular and free living
-have the typical eukaryotic structures with an internal membrane, nucleus, surrounded by a nuclear envelope and organelles like the mitochondria and chloroplast
-some protists are colonial - organisms consisting of similar or identical cells
-both autotrophic and heterotrophic

3 lifestyle are used to classify protists

-animal-like protists
-plant-like protists

general characteristics of protozoa

-"animal-like protists" are hetertroph
-they eat bacteria, other protists and nonliving organic matter
-lack a cell wall
-inhabit aquatic environment
-some live in body fluids of living hosts

4 main groups of protozoa

-Protozoans with flagella
-protozoans with cillia
-protozoans with pseudopia
-protozoans with lacking motility

protozoans with flagella

(zooflagellates) means they moves by means of 1 or 2 flagellates. They usually reproduce asexually by binary fission. Most are free-living

protozoans with cillia

named for use of hair-like projections called cillia that that help them move and feed

protozoans with pseudopia

"Ameoba" moves and feeds by means of temporary extensions of the cytoplasm or plasma membrane.

protozoans lacking motility

parasite with no means of active motility. non motile

general characteristics of slime molds

-multicellular and unicellular
-common where there is decaying matter

general characteristics of algae

-contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis
-make their own food
-most are unicellular, some multicellular
-live in colonies


animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
-microscopic heterotrophic protists surrounded in an aquatic environment.


algae and cyanobacteria that carry out photosynthesis
-lives in an aquatic environment
-type of plankton

universal naming system



using bacteria to clean up pollutants

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