What, where, and when were the "rehearsals for Reconstruction"?
During the war, In the Union-occupied South, On the South Carolina Sea Islands,the former slaves demanded land of their own, while government officials and Northern investors urged them to return to work on the plantations. Also there were a group of northern reformers that came to educate and assist freed people in the transition from slavery to freedom.
What did Lincoln's reconstruction plan not do for slaves?q
It did not give former slaves any citizenship rights.
What did Lincoln state in his last public speech?
The idea of limited black suffrage,(singling out army veterans and the educated, as most worthy).
What does the first recruitment ad promise to black troops?
Protection (and pay)
Who was Gideon's Band?
group of young reformers, that sought to assist the freed people by providing educationand preparing them for the competitive world of free labor.
Who was Laura Towne?
Educator of the freed people, and epitomized the spirit of New England reform after theCivil War.
What did the federal government do in June 1862?
the federal government authorized the sale of abandoned lands at public auction.
What happened to most of the land
Northern investors purchased almost all of it.
What disappointed blacks in the Sea Islands, that was related to a military order issued by Sherman?
They were under the impression that this land was their permanently, but thenwhen Andrew Johnson became President, the land was returned to former owners.
What was the main pillar of the postwar black experience?
Who came to play a major role in Reconstruction politics?
Most Southern blacks belonged to which denominations
African Methodist Episcopal and Baptist churches
When did public education come to the South?
The attendance roll-book indicates that...
QMost students attended every day
What two reasons for the South's defeat are listed in one of the Lost Cause images?
Church and the Negro
What happened in 1866 in Memphis and New Orleans?
Riots. Black communities became the victims of wholesale assault by white mobs,aided by the local police.-In these outbreaks, schools, churches, and other community institutions,symbols of black freedom, became the targets of violence, as well as private homes and individual African-Americans.
What was the rallying cry for many former slaves?
"Forty acres and a mule"
What happened to many white farmers in the South?
they were forced to enter into cotton production (big change for them)
What two labor systems became most popular for poor whites and blacks?
Sharecropping & wage labor *Sharecropping: people gave portion of crop to landowner in exchange for theland they were on;it emerged as a last minute idea to keep blacks working in the fields b/c the surrenderoccurred during planting season.Tenant farmers- often sold all of their crops and paid owners in money.Crop lien system- borrowing against the next year's crop to settle "debts"
What did cities offer blacks?
offered more diverse work opportunities for both black and white laborers.
What did many labor contracts state?
Many landowners wrote into labor contracts detailed provisions requiring freed people tolabor in gangs as under slavery, and obey their employers' every command. Butcontracts could not create a submissive labor force; because of the labor shortage, dissatisfied freed people could always find employment elsewhere.
Widespread use of this meant an awful cycle of debt for poor whites and blacks.
Credit and the destruction of the war
What were the three questions that framed Reconstruction?
On what terms should the defeated Confederacy be reunited with the Union?
Who should establish these terms, Congress or the President?
What should be the place of the former slaves in the political life of the South?
********Compare and contrast Lincoln's, Johnson's, and Congress's plans.***********
Lincoln-10% Plan which was lenient and said that all voters in seceding states (Election of 1860) would sign loyalty oath; it did not include black suffrage, although probably would have adopted limited suffrage; and would have supported Freedman's Bureau on some level. Had to ratify 13th AmendmentJohnson-Like Lincoln, favored lenient 10% plan, ratify 13th Amendment, BUT he did not support the federal funding for Freedman's Bureau, nor did he support black suffrage or federal protection of black rights, and pardoned several ex-Confederate leaders. Congress-Led by Radical Republicans in Congress, the plan called for a ratification of the 14th Amendment and federal protection of black rights, eventually this became militarized w/ extended military occupation of the South, and also under Grant's administration, the 15th Amendment, also had loyalty oath, and each govt. had to have Republicans in office.
What were black codes?
severely limiting the former slaves' legal rights and economic options so as to force them to return to the plantations as dependent laborers. Some states limited the occupations open to blacks. None allowed any blacks to vote, or provided public funds for their education
Summarize Johnson's battles with Congress.
He very clearly and obnoxiously battled with Republicans over protection of black rights like with the Freedman's Bureau, and they proceed to make a bogus law called the Tenure of Office Act in an effort to draw up impeachment proceedings, almost lost the office but still impeached.
The Fourteenth Amendment does...
Forbade states to deprive any citizen of the "equal protection of the laws," the firstConstitutional guarantee of the principle of equal civil rights regardless of race
The Fifteenth Amendment...
Prohibited states from abridging the right to vote because of race, although it allowedother restrictions based on education, property and sex to remain in effect
Who was most prominent Radical Republican?
What was Radical Reconstruction?
Confiscating the land of Confederate planters and dividing it among Northern settlersand the former slaves
Who became President after Johnson?
Ulysses S. Grant
What were some of the differences in Southern society and politics during Reconstruction?
produced a wave of political mobilization- Blacks voting and holding office for firsts time,and white
Who were carpetbaggers?
White newcomers from the North that joined the Blacks- some were investors (makemoney and leave), some to help free slaves, some to have influence on politics, Most left after Southern associations took threats and action.
Who were scalawags?
White Republican Southerners
What was the most radical element of Congressional Reconstruction?
******Hiram Revels was 1st black Senator from ____________.*******
What did Southern governments do regarding economic and technological advancement during Reconstruction, and what went wrong with their plans?
During Reconstruction, the new state governments embarked on ambitious and expensive programs of economic development, rebuilding its cities and hoping that railroad and factory development would produce a prosperity shared by both races.
What caused the end of Reconstruction?
Violent opposition in the South and the North's retreat from its commitment to equality(1870s)
Was the KKK the only type of terrorizing organization in the South?
No, there were other secret societies as well.
What were some of the KKK's goals?
To restore white supremacy in politics and life in general.
destroy Reconstruction efforts by murdering African Americans and the white Republican politician or those who educated black children.
Limiting the influence of Republicans for everything.
What political deal actually signaled the end of Reconstruction?
The election of 1876. Rutherford B. Hayes was president (Republican)
What was the essential reason why many Southern whites hated Reconstruction?
Could not face the fact that blacks should be able to hold office, vote, or have any say inanything for their nation.
What is called the Second Reconstruction?
Civil Rights Acts which tried to erase the economic inequalities that originated in slaveryand were reinforced by decades of segregation.
Grant worked hard to get the __________ amendment passed which guaranteed the right __________________
-to vote for black men.
Grant's efforts sought and achieved for a short time meaningful _____ ______ for black Americans .
Gant knew that the central test of his newfound will was the suppression of ________________________.
southern violence against blacks.
In 1871, he signed the _____________, also known as the _________act, authorizing him t declare martial law.
Civil Rights Act
-Ku Klux Klan
The klan was disrupted and ________ __________ carried most of the southern states.
After the 1872 election however, grant reached out to southern democrats, hoping for some measure of ____________.
Most southern democrats were deeply ________. In particular. They were against the use of tax money to provide services for poor blacks.
In response to grant's efforts at making peace with them, southern democrats formed _________ that used violence to ______________.
stop blacks from voting.
Reformer republicans, now against grant, we're upset at reports of widespread _____________in the south, and used their power to block Grant's efforts at stopping the violence and punishing ex confederates who were connitting the __________.
regular republican corruption
In the meantime, ___________ were growing weary of the use of the _______ to protect southern blacks and of ______________________
corruption within the republican party.
By ___________, _____________ were able to retake control of their state governments.
1875 and 1876
When did public education come to the South?
Which amendment prohibited states from abridging the right to vote because of race, although it allowed other restrictions based on education, property and sex to remain in effect?
Who was the most prominent Radical Republican?
____________________ were a series of laws passed by __________________ to define _____________________ and responsibilities.
The Black Codes; Southern States; freedman's rights
Southern blacks attended ______________________ and ________________________
*c. African Methodist Episcopal; Baptist
Two reasons for the South's defeat listed in one of the Lost Cause images are _________________ and ______________________.
The church and the negro
In the ______________________ and ___________________________ riots of ______________, black communities became the victims of violence by white mobs , aided by the local _____________.
*c. Memphis; New Orleans; 1866; police
What production in the South did many white farmers go into?
What WAS supported under President Johnson's Reconstruction Plan?
The Harboring of many ex confederates*
4) What political deal actually signaled the end of Reconstruction?
bargain of 1877
What was the most radical element of Congressional Reconstruction?
Black codes were actual laws made to keep blacks from ____.
Voting and achieving full rights
Some differences in Southern society and politics during reconstruction included that blacks could finally vote and hold office, and there were also white republicans holding office.
(true or false)
Which of these did many labor contracts NOT state?
create a submissive labor force because of the labor shortage*
Which of these was not promised to Africans-Americans in military recruitment ads?
Reuniting of slave families
What went wrong with southern governements plans regarding economic and technological advancements during reconstruction?
Northern investors preferred new opportunities in the west
What two groups did Lincoln single out when he endorsed the idea of limited black suffrage?
Educated blacks and black army veterans