Psychology

Created by edgeman101 

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HomeWork

Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of
A) animal intelligence.
B) personality development.
C) learning and memory.
D) reactions to sensory stimulation.

D

Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images.
A) John Watson
B) Charles Darwin
C) Edward Titchener
D) B. F. Skinner

C

William James was a prominent American
A) psychoanalyst.
B) behaviorist.
C) functionalist.
D) structuralist

C

Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
A) Jean Piaget
B) Margaret Floy Washburn
C) Rosalie Rayner
D) Mary Whiton Calkins

D

Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
A) Wundt
B) Watson
C) Freud
D) James

D

The young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and
A) economics.
B) biology.
C) geography.
D) sociology.

B

In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.
A) environmental influences; hereditary influences
B) maladaptive behavior; adaptive behavior
C) unconscious motives; conscious thoughts and feelings
D) mental life; observable behavior

D

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as
A) behaviorism.
B) cognitive neuroscience.
C) humanistic psychology.
D) positive psychology

A

Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's
A) childhood memories.
B) genetic predispositions.
C) unconscious thought processes.
D) potential for healthy growth.

D

In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of
A) mental processes.
B) hereditary influences.
C) unconscious motives.
D) learned behaviors

A

Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between
A) natural selection and genetic predispositions.
B) childhood memories and psychological disorders.
C) thought processes and brain functions.
D) philosophy and physiology

C

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of
A) conscious and unconscious mental activity.
B) observable responses to the environment.
C) behavior and mental processes.
D) maladaptive and adaptive behaviors.

C

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
A) structuralism versus functionalism.
B) evolution versus natural selection.
C) observation versus introspection.
D) nature versus nurture

D

Complementary accounts of the same behavior that can supplement one another represent different
A) cognitive functions.
B) unconscious drives.
C) levels of analysis.
D) natural selections.

C

Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.
A) neuroscience
B) psychodynamic
C) behavior genetics
D) cognitive

A

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.
A) social-cultural
B) cognitive
C) evolutionary
D) psychodynamic

C

Which perspective studies the relative contributions of our genes and our environment on our individual differences?
A) cognitive
B) behavior genetics
C) social-cultural
D) psychodynamic

B

The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
A) natural selection.
B) brain chemistry.
C) unconscious conflicts.
D) learned behaviors.

C

Akira believes that her son has become a good student because she always praises his learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a ________ perspective.
A) behavior genetics
B) neuroscience
C) psychodynamic
D) behavioral

D

The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how
A) feelings are influenced by blood chemistry.
B) people try to understand their own unconscious motives.
C) behavior is influenced by environmental conditions.
D) people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

D

Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?
A) behavioral
B) cognitive
C) neuroscience
D) behavior genetics

B

Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encouraged among various ethnic groups?
A) evolutionary
B) psychodynamic
C) social-cultural
D) neuroscience

C

Dr. Santaniello conducts research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a(n) ________ psychologist.
A) social
B) clinical
C) developmental
D) industrial-organizational

C

Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
A) cognitive psychology
B) social psychology
C) developmental psychology
D) clinical psychology

B

Which psychologists are MOST likely to be involved in applied research?
A) industrial-organizational psychologists
B) developmental psychologists
C) personality psychologists
D) biological psychologists

A

Dr. Vazquez helps people to make career choices by assisting them in identifying their strengths and interests. Dr. Vazquez is most likely a
A) biological psychologist.
B) counseling psychologist.
C) cognitive psychologist.
D) social psychologist.

B

Clinical psychologists specialize in
A) constructing surveys.
B) animal research.
C) providing therapy to troubled people.
D) providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders.

C

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
A) clinical psychologist.
B) personality psychologist.
C) developmental psychologist.
D) psychiatrist.

D

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
A) dismiss the value of intuition.
B) reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested.
C) exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.
D) overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions.

C

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates
A) hindsight bias.
B) intuition.
C) overconfidence.
D) an empirical approach.

C

Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate
A) our humility.
B) the power of the unconscious.
C) the value of the scientific attitude.
D) our intuition.

D

By testing their predictions by observing human behavior, psychologists are using
A) their intuition.
B) an empirical approach.
C) critical thinking.
D) common sense.

B

Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are
A) pride, enthusiasm, and ingenuity.
B) ingenuity, practicality. and certainty.
C) certainty, creativity, and curiosity.
D) curiosity, skepticism, and humility.

D

A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates
A) experimentation.
B) critical thinking.
C) hindsight bias.
D) overconfidence.

B

Assessing whether conclusions are warranted by the existing evidence best illustrates
A) critical thinking.
B) observation.
C) experimentation.
D) prediction.

A

The simplified reality of laboratory experiments is most helpful in enabling psychologists to
A) predict human behavior in a variety of situations.
B) perceive order in completely random events.
C) develop general principles that help explain behavior.
D) observe random samples of human conduct.

C

The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their
A) culture.
B) normal curve.
C) wording effects.
D) statistical significance.

A

Psychological differences between the genders are
A) of little interest to contemporary psychologists.
B) simply reflections of biological differences between the sexes.
C) no longer evident in contemporary Western societies.
D) far outweighed by gender similarities.

D

Psychologists study animals because
A) animal behavior is just as complex as human behavior.
B) experiments on people are generally considered to be unethical.
C) the ethical treatment of animals is not mandated by professional guidelines.
D) similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior.

D

In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes
A) obtain written promises from participants to respond honestly.
B) treat information about individual participants confidentially.
C) deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment.
D) allow people to decide for themselves whether they want to participate in an experiment.

C

Psychologists' personal values and goals
A) are carefully tested by means of observation and experimentation.
B) lead them to avoid experiments involving human participants.
C) can bias their observations and interpretations.
D) have very little influence on the process of scientific observation.

C

Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n)
A) theory.
B) replication.
C) naturalistic observation.
D) illusory correlation.

A

The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable
A) assumptions.
B) correlations.
C) predictions.
D) variables.

C

A hypothesis is a(n)
A) observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables.
B) testable prediction that gives direction to research.
C) set of principles that organizes observations and explains newly discovered facts.
D) unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning.

B

Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of
A) dependent variable.
B) the placebo effect.
C) a hypothesis.
D) illusory correlation.

C

In a written report of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n)
A) hypothesis.
B) independent variable.
C) operational definition.
D) standard deviation.

C

Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?
A) naturalistic observation
B) replication
C) random sampling
D) the case study

B

The case study is a research method in which
A) a single individual is studied in great depth.
B) a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors.
C) organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment.
D) an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.

A

In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?
A) experimentation
B) the survey
C) the case study
D) naturalistic observation

B

Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy." These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of
A) random sampling.
B) wording effects.
C) the placebo effect.
D) naturalistic observation.

B

After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Ervin's conclusion best illustrates the danger of
A) replication.
B) random assignment.
C) the placebo effect.
D) generalizing from vivid cases.

D

Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in
A) survey research.
B) naturalistic observation.
C) experimentation.
D) replication.

B

To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use
A) case studies.
B) naturalistic observation.
C) correlational measures.
D) experimental research.

C

A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between
A) intelligence and academic success.
B) financial poverty and physical health.
C) self-esteem and depression.
D) school grades and school absences.

A

If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are
A) causally related.
B) negatively correlated.
C) independent variables.
D) positively correlated.

B

Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of
A) a hypothesis.
B) hindsight bias.
C) illusory correlation.
D) the placebo effect.

A

Suppose that people who watch a lot of violence on TV are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because
A) random sequences often don't look random.
B) correlation does not prove causation.
C) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations.
D) events often seem more probable in hindsight.

B

Illusory correlation refers to
A) the perception of a relationship between two variables that does not exist.
B) a correlation that exceeds the value of +1.00.
C) a random cluster of points on a scatterplot.
D) a correlation that is not statistically significant.

A

To find out whether breast-milk feeding contributes to the intellectual development of children, psychologists used
A) case studies.
B) surveys.
C) naturalistic observations.
D) experiments.

D

Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?
A) the survey
B) the experiment
C) correlational research
D) naturalistic observation

B

Being randomly assigned to the experimental group in a research project involves being assigned
A) to that group by chance.
B) to the group in which participants are representative of people in general.
C) in a fashion that ensures that the independent variable will have a strong effect on the dependent variable.
D) to the group in which participants are all very similar in personality characteristics.

A

To assess the impact of test difficulty on persistence of effort, researchers plan to give one group of children relatively easy tests and another group more difficult tests. To reduce the chance that the children in one group are more intelligent than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of
A) random assignment.
B) the double-blind procedure.
C) naturalistic observations.
D) operational definitions.

A

Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of
A) naturalistic observation.
B) random sampling.
C) the double-blind procedure.
D) replication.

C

An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a
A) placebo.
B) median.
C) case study.
D) replication.

A

The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ________ on feelings and behaviors.
A) the double-blind procedure
B) random sampling
C) positive expectations
D) statistical significance

C

Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?
A) The experimenter exerts the greatest influence on participants' behavior.
B) The research participants are exposed to all the different experimental treatments.
C) The research participants are exposed to the most favorable levels of experimental treatment.
D) The experimental treatment is absent.

D

Random assignment minimizes ________ between experimental and control groups. Random sampling minimizes ________ between a sample and a population.
A) similarities; differences
B) differences; similarities
C) similarities; similarities
D) differences; differences

D

In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ________ variable.
A) dependent
B) independent
C) control
D) experimental

B

In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.
A) dependent
B) experimental
C) control
D) independent

A

An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates
A) the independent variable.
B) an operational definition.
C) the double-blind procedure.
D) random assignment.

B

Which measure of central tendency is used to calculate the average of your school grades?
A) standard deviation
B) median
C) mean
D) mode

C

When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to
A) determine whether it is statistically significant.
B) consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases.
C) be sure that it describes a truly random sample.
D) recognize the potential for illusory correlation.

B

A lopsided distribution of scores in which the mean is much larger than both the mode and median is said to be
A) statistically significant.
B) a random sample.
C) a scatterplot.
D) skewed.

D

Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of scores?
A) mean
B) scatterplot
C) standard deviation
D) correlation coefficient

C

Evelyn wants to know how consistent her bowling scores have been during the past season. Which of the following measures would tell her what she wants to know?
A) mean
B) median
C) standard deviation
D) correlation coefficient

C

The symmetrical bell-shaped figure used to represent the distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics is called a
A) bar graph.
B) normal curve.
C) correlation.
D) scatterplot.

B

Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean?
A) 16
B) 34
C) 68
D) 95

C

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
A) -0.12
B) -0.99
C) +0.25
D) -0.50

A

The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are
A) stem cells.
B) interneurons.
C) motor neurons.
D) sensory neurons.

B

Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called
A) ACh agonists.
B) dendrites.
C) morphene antagonists.
D) endorphins.

D

Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the
A) axon terminals.
B) synaptic gaps.
C) cell bodies.
D) endocrine glands.

B

Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n)
A) ACh antagonist.
B) dopamine antagonist.
C) ACh agonist.
D) dopamine agonist.

A

In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.
A) lowers; dilates
B) raises; contracts
C) lowers; contracts
D) raises; dilates

D

While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different
A) neurotransmitters.
B) parathyroids.
C) neural networks.
D) synapses.

C

The endocrine system consists of
A) myelin sheaths.
B) neural networks.
C) interneurons.
D) glands.

D

An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.
A) away from; toward
B) away from; away from
C) toward; away from
D) toward; toward

A

The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with
A) ACh.
B) GABA.
C) dopamine.
D) adrenaline.

A

Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
A) low; low
B) high; high
C) low; high
D) high; low

A

A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n)
A) opiate.
B) antagonist.
C) glutamate.
D) agonist.

D

The peripheral nervous system consists of
A) interneurons.
B) the spinal cord.
C) endocrine glands.
D) sensory and motor neurons.

D

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and ________ blood sugar levels.
A) raises; raises
B) lowers; lowers
C) raises; lowers
D) lowers; raises

A

A biological psychologist would be MORE likely to study
A) how you learn to express emotions.
B) how to help people overcome emotional disorders.
C) life-span changes in the expression of emotion.
D) the chemical changes that accompany emotions.

D

The axons of certain neurons are covered by a layer of fatty tissue that helps speed neural transmission. This tissue is myelin sheath.
A) True
B) False

A

Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse?
A) axon, dendrite, cell body, synapse
B) dendrite, axon, cell body, synapse
C) synapse, axon, dendrite, cell body
D) dendrite, cell body, axon, synapse

D

In a resting state, the axon is
A) depolarized, with mostly negatively charged ions outside and positively charged ions inside.
B) depolarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside.
C) polarized, with mostly negatively charged ions outside and positively charged ions inside.
D) polarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside.

D

Melissa has just completed running a marathon. She is so elated that she feels little fatigue or discomfort. Her lack of pain is probably the result of the release of
A) ACh.
B) endorphins.
C) dopamine.
D) norepinephrine.

B

The pain of heroin withdrawal may be attributable to the fact that
A) under the influence of heroin the brain ceases production of endorphins.
B) under the influence of heroin the brain ceases production of all neurotransmitters.
C) during heroin withdrawal the brain's production of all neurotransmitters is greatly increased.
D) heroin destroys endorphin receptors in the brain.

A

I am a relatively fast-acting chemical messenger that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. What am I?
A) acetylcholine
B) dopamine
C) norepinephrine
D) serotonin

D

Since Malcolm has been taking a drug prescribed by his doctor, he no longer enjoys the little pleasures of life, such as eating and drinking. His doctor explains that this is because the drug
A) triggers release of dopamine.
B) inhibits release of dopamine.
C) triggers release of ACh.
D) inhibits release of ACh.

B

The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to
A) cause the brain to stop producing certain neurotransmitters.
B) mimic a particular neurotransmitter.
C) block a particular neurotransmitter.
D) disrupt a neuron's all-or-none firing pattern.

B

The effect of a drug that is an antagonist is to
A) cause the brain to stop producing certain neurotransmitters.
B) mimic a particular neurotransmitter.
C) block a particular neurotransmitter.
D) disrupt a neuron's all-or-none firing pattern.

C

Voluntary movements, such as writing with a pencil, are directed by the
A) sympathetic nervous system.
B) somatic nervous system.
C) parasympathetic nervous system.
D) autonomic nervous system.

B

Heartbeat, digestion, and other self-regulating bodily functions are governed by the
A) voluntary nervous system.
B) autonomic nervous system.
C) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
D) somatic nervous system.

B

The brain research technique that involves monitoring the brain's usage of glucose is called (in abbreviated form) the
A) PET scan.
B) fMRI.
C) EEG.
D) MRI.

A

The technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer images of structures within the brain is called
A) the EEG.
B) a lesion.
C) a PET scan.
D) MRI.

D

In primitive vertebrate animals, the brain primarily regulates ________; in lower mammals, the brain enables ________.
A) emotion; memory
B) memory; emotion
C) survival functions; emotion
D) reproduction; emotion

C

Following a head injury, a person has ongoing difficulties staying awake. Most likely, the damage occurred to the
A) thalamus.
B) hippocampus.
C) reticular formation.
D) cerebellum.

C

Moruzzi and Magoun caused a cat to lapse into a coma by severing neural connections between the cortex and the
A) reticular formation.
B) hypothalamus.
C) thalamus.
D) cerebellum.

A

Jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receiving a blow to the back of her head. It is likely that she injured her
A) medulla.
B) thalamus.
C) hypothalamus.
D) cerebellum.

D

Dr. Frankenstein made a mistake during neurosurgery on his monster. After the operation, the monster "saw" with his ears and "heard" with his eyes. It is likely that Dr. Frankenstein "re-wired" neural connections in the monster's
A) hypothalamus.
B) cerebellum.
C) amygdala.
D) thalamus.

D

Though there is no single "control center" for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the
A) limbic system.
B) reticular formation.
C) brainstem.
D) cerebellum.

A

A scientist from another planet wishes to study the simplest brain mechanisms underlying emotion. You recommend that the scientist study the
A) brainstem of a frog.
B) hippocampus of a dog.
C) amygdala of a monkey.
D) thalamus of a human.

C

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n)
A) fMRI.
B) EEG.
C) PET scan.
D) MRI.

B

To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)
A) fMRI.
B) EEG.
C) MRI.
D) brain lesion.

A

The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the
A) cerebellum.
B) medulla.
C) amygdala.
D) thalamus.

B

The reticular formation is located in the
A) brainstem.
B) limbic system.
C) hippocampus.
D) cerebellum.

A

Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
A) reticular formation
B) cerebellum
C) amygdala
D) medulla

A

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the
A) limbic system.
B) thalamus.
C) cerebellum.
D) reticular formation.

C

Conscious information processing is LEAST likely to be required for the automatic physical survival functions regulated by the
A) hippocampus.
B) hypothalamus.
C) brainstem.
D) amygdala.

C

To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's
A) reticular formation.
B) cerebellum.
C) medulla.
D) amygdala.

D

The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
A) cerebellum.
B) amygdala.
C) reticular formation.
D) hypothalamus.

D

Addictive disorders are likely to be associated with reward centers in the
A) thalamus.
B) cerebellum.
C) reticular formation.
D) limbic system.

D

Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
A) hypothalamus
B) limbic system
C) brainstem
D) hippocampus

C

After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her
A) amygdala.
B) hypothalamus.
C) cerebellum.
D) thalamus.

C

The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the
A) thalamus.
B) amygdala.
C) hippocampus.
D) hypothalamus.

D

Your ability to experience the physical pleasure of a hot shower is most likely to be disrupted by damage to your
A) pons.
B) hippocampus.
C) amygdala.
D) thalamus.

D

The amygdala and hypothalamus are part of the
A) brainstem.
B) limbic system.
C) reticular formation.
D) endocrine system.

B

If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode into the
A) thalamus.
B) hippocampus.
C) hypothalamus.
D) amygdala.

C

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