US HIS Ch. 20 The New Frontier and the Great Society (1960-1968)

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John F. Kennedy

35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War. He was assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald.

Election of 1960

Kennedy v. Nixon--First televised presidential debate, those who watched saw JFK as the victor. Those who listened believed Nixon had won. Kennedy went on to win the election.

Flexible Response

The buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons.

Fidel Castro

Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba.

Bay of Pigs

An American attempt to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba by training and sending Cuban rebels. The coup ended up in a disaster due to the lack of support by the Americans. The incident was an embarrassment for the U.S. and ultimately led to Castro pleading for Soviet aid (Cuban Missile Crisis).

Cuban Missile Crisis

Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the Soviet Union's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.

Berlin Wall

A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.

Hot Line

A communication link established in 1963 to allow the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union to contact each other in times of crisis.

Limited Test Ban Treaty

Agreement between the US, Soviet Union, and Great Britain to end the testing of nuclear bombs in the atmosphere or underwater.

New Frontier

Kennedy's plan, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wants to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military

Mandate

Th authority to act that an elected oficial recieves from he voters who elected him or her.

Peace Corps

Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations around the world.

Alliance for Progress

A program in which the United States gave billions of dollers to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems in order to counter Communism.

Space Race

A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.

Warren Commission

The U.S. commission in charge with investigating the assassination of JFK. It came to the conclusion that Oswald was alone in his actions and advised to reform presidential security measures.

Lyndon Baines Johnson

the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969 after serving as the Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963; became president after Kennedy was assassinated.

Economic Opportunity Act

A law, enacted in 1964, that provided funds for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job training.

Election of 1964

LBJ vs. Barry Goldwater. Goldwater was seen as a "radical conservative" in that he was willing to use nuclear weapons to win Vietnam; LBJ capitalized on this fear of nuclear weapons through television commericials. LBJ won by a landslide.

Great Society

President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Medicare

A national health insurance program that helps pay for health care for people over age 65 or with certain disabilities regardless of income.

Medicaid

A federally aided, state operated program that provides medical benefits for low-income persons in need of medical care.

Immigration Act of 1965

Abolished national origins quotas, dramatically increased immigration, especially from Asia and Latin America.

Warren Court

The supreme court during the period when Earl Warren was chief justice, noted for its activism in the areas of civil rights and free speech

Reapportionment

The process of reassigning representation for the States based on population after every census.

Miranda v. Arizona

1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel ("You have the right to remain silent...).

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