10th us history ch 13 15 16

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how did the civil war stimulate industrial expansion

people were already working the factories and stuff because they were making the war good for the civil war, people were going for their dreams, inventors and scientists backed up by political leaders created tons of new inventions

what inventions and discoveries made the united states ripe for industrial expansion at the time

there were many inventins made in the us, there was the telegraph invented by morse so now they could talk to people over distance. drake first found oil and they had sources for energy. then edison came along and invented many things-a phonograph, electricity was the main thing we did. there was advances in communication-telegraph, telephone by bell, they also invented ways to make producing things easier, also invented was transcontinental railroad.

how did the construction and the completion of the transcontinental railroad impact the nation and other industires

it impacted the us because now they could transport their goods and stuff all over the country. it was now alot easier and also alot faster. lower cost produciton. national markets were created. a model for big business and a way for passengers to travel.

who were Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeler and what did they do to build the united states into a major industrial company

Andrew Carnegie was a steel business man and philanthropist, he said that after you make alot of money then you should give it away. John D. Rockefeller was the person who formed the Standard Oil Company, they showed people how to do business

what are the basic premises of capitalism and social darwinism

Social Darwinism: was basically survival of the fittest. and capitalism was when wealth and the stuff you get is privately owned.

what is the difference between vertical and horizontal consolidation

vertical consolidation is when you gain control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a product's development. Horizontal consolidation is when you own a single aspect of the business and own it all and bring it together to make the final product. horizontal was Rockefller and vertical was carnagie

what were the common conditions the average worker had to endure

the average worker ahad awful working conditions. they had to work in dirty envroemnts that were hazardous to their health. they had reallly long hours and very little pay.

how did labor unions help protect the workers

labor unions helped because all the people came together and talked about how they wanted better conditions etc.

what is laissez faire government

this is the hands-of approach to economic matters, it means that the government should play a very limited role in the government

from where did the wave of immigrants to America come during the period following Civil War

after the civil war many immigrants came from many different places. they came because of crop failures, raising taxes and famine. the main places they came from were europe. like italy russia central europe southern europe. there were also alot of people from asia

what role did these new immigrants fulfill

they were the people that did they jobs that many other people did not want to so. they were discriminated.

how did cities begin to change during the period following the Civil War

the cities started getting bigger because of all the immigrants. they lived in their own ghettos and many people lived in tenements. many people left behind the farms and moved to the cities. cities also grew upwards.

how did Plessy Vs. Ferguson provide a setback to the quest for african-american equality

plessy vs furgeson was when they passed the law "separate but equal" this law is saying that africans are still equal but they can be separated from the whites and it's legal as long as they are equal.

t: Edwin L. Drake

drilled the first productive oil well in the us at Titusville, PA

t: Alexander Graham Bell

Inventor of the telephone and founder of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company

t: Sir Henry Bessemer

English engineer and inventor of the process by which iron ore was efficiently and cheaply converted to steal

t: Andrew Carnegie

Led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 1800's and was also one of the country's most important philanthropists of the era

t: Grenville Doge

.

t: George Eastman

.

t: Thomas Edison

responsible for the phonograph, incandescent lamp, and motion picture machine

t: Cyrus Field

.

t: Henry Ford

made the ford cars

t: Samuel Gompers

US labor leader and first president of the American Federation of Labor

t: William Kelly

.

t: Emma Lazarus

American writer best known for her sonnet "The New Colossus" is emblazoned at the bade of the Statue of Libertty

t: R. H Marcy

.

t: J.P. Morgan

.

t: Samuel Morse

perfected the telegraph as well as decised a code of short and long electrical impulses to use with the telegraph and it rep letters of the alaphabet

t: Terrence Powderly

American labor leader who organized the and led the Knights of Labor from 1879-1893

t: George Pullman

.

t: John D. Rockefeller

Founder of the standard oil company which dominated the oil industry and was the first great us buisness trust

t: Alvah C. Roebuck

.

t: Richard Sears

.

t: Gustavus Swift

Founder of the meat packing industry and innovator of the refrigerated freight rail car for shipping meat over long times

t: Cornelius Vanderbilt

railroads was his main thing. philanthropist again

George Westinghouse

responsible for the manufacture of the rail car air brake system, also worked with electricity and developed the alternating current

Bessemer process

the process by which cold air id forced through molten iron to remove its impurities

cartel

loose arrangement of similar businesses formed to control production and keep prices high

collective bargaining

when workers negotiate as a group with employers for certain benefits

dividend

.

division of labor

breaking a job down into separate tasks and having each worker perform a different task

economies of sale

the idea that as production increases, cost per item decreases

horizontal consolidation

when you own part of the business, but that whole part.

laissez-faire

.

mass consumption

.

mass production

the making of goods in large quantities

mass transit

.

monopoly

the result of unifying companies in the same field or industry so you can make a larger more powerful that has no competition in selling the product

patent

license to make, use, or sell an invention

piecework

when workers received a fixed amount for each finished product that they produced

productivity

the amount of goods or services produced in a given amount of time

refinery

place where crude oil is processed into useful products like kerosene, oil, grease, and gsaoline

scabs

workers called in place of the striking workers

socialism

the political and economic theory that advocates public rather than private control over the property

social Darwinism

theory of :survival of the fittest" as it apples to business that was widely accepted throughout the 1800's

strike

when workers collectively refuse to work as a way of drawing attention to their cause

subsidy

is a payment made by the government to encourage the development of certian key industries, like railroads

sweatshop

the critical description of a place where workers worked long hours at ow wages under dangerous conditions

tenements

places in the cities where people lived and it was dirty crowded and disease infested

vertical consolidation

bringing together the various stages of production, from acquiring the raw materials to the sale of the finished product

aliens

illegal people who came into the us

Angel Island

the main reception center for the immigrants arriving in san fran

chinese exclusion act

law passed in 1882 that prohibited chinese people from entering the country, but did not prevent entry who had previously established s residence

ellis island

where the people got checked and came into america in NY

ghettos

section of the cities where certain ethnic groups and racial groups lived

graft

the use of ones job to gain profit, usually through accepting bribes

nativism

.

pogroms

violent massacre of jews carried out through Russia in 1880's

political machines

unofficial business organization to keep a particular party or group in power, usually headed by a "boss"

quarantine

situation that immigrants were in if they entered into the is and people thought they had a contagious disease

restrictive covenants

.

settlement houses

neighborhood community centers set up to help the poor and needy

social gospel movement

reform campaign that tried to apply the teachings of Jesus Christ directly to society

sociology

.

steerage

large open area beneath the ship's deck in which most of the immigrants traveled through it allowed no privacy and provided poor facilities

subsidies

.

restrictive covenants

agreements sometimes made by homeowners promising that they would not sell real estate to certain ethnic groups

suburb

residential community on the out-laying areas of the city

temperance movement

an organized movement to eliminate alcohol consumption

tenement houses

cheap apartment buildings crammed with people

vice

immoral of corrupt behavior

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