Micro test continued

78 terms by alr0012

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what are the 4 phases of a bacterial growth curve?

lag, log (exponential), stationary (plateau), and death (decline)

a period of adjustment of a bacterial culture

lag phase

the time required for a bacterial cell to grow and divide

generation time

the time for a bacterial population to double in number

generation time

populations of bacteria in log phase are most susceptible to what?

antimicrobial drugs

populations of bacteria in what phase are most susceptible to antimicrobial drugs?

log phase

What phase is characterized by DNA replication, growth, and reproduction?

log

as toxic waste builds up or food is depleted, bacterial cultures go into the ___ phase where there is no change in the size of the population (# dying= # reproducing)

stationary

a stationary phase has what kind of a change?

none

certain bacteria can undergo sporulation in what phase?

stationary

bacterial cells die, reducing the total number of bacterial cells in the culture in what phase?

death

bacteria exists in what 3 shapes?

round (coccus), rod (bacillus), and spiral (spirilla, spirochete, vibrio)

chains of cocci

streptococci

clusters of cocci

staphylococci

pairs of cocci

diplococci

a ___ bacterial cell is one that is growing and multiplying

vegetative

the hardiest of all life forms

spores

withstands extremes of temps, drying, freezing, radiation, and chemicals that would kill vegetative bacterial cells

spores

bacteria that can form spores have a 2 phase life cycle

vegetative cell and a spore

do most bacteria cause diseases?

no

___ can begin if a bacterial cell is depleted of nutrients or put into a harsh environment: it can remain in this dormant inactive state forever

spore formation

difficult to destroy and is a problem when cleanliness and sterility are important

spores

the breaking of ___ or germination of a spore happens in the presence of water and a favorable environmental stimulus

dormancy

the breaking of dormancy or germination of a spore happens in the presence of a favorable environmental stimulus and what?

water

what resists ordinary cleaning methods that use boiling water, soaps, and disinfectants?

spores

___ are not necessary for a bacterial cell to survive

plasmids

extra chromosomal pieces of circular dna found in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell.

plasmids

replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome

plasmids

made of dna and code for things not necessary for a bacterial cell to survive

plasmids

can be transferred from one bacteria to another through conjugation, transformation, and transduction

plasmids

often the code for antimicrobial resistance

plasmids

the change in the base sequence of the DNA

mutation

can be caused by chemicals, radiation, or just be sponataneous

mutation

are mutations rare?

yes

all cells have the ability to repair their what? this mechanism is lost with age

dna

the exchange of genes between 2 dna molecules resulting in a new combination of genes in a chromosome

genetic recombination

genetic recombination among microorganisms of the same generation

horizontal gene transfer

binary fission in bacteria (reproduction) is

vertical gene transfer

3 types of horizontal gene transfer are

conjugation, transduction, transformation

conjugation involves 2 cell types:

donors (aka F+) and recipients (aka F-)

the F factor codes for the ___ used in transfer of information from the donor cell

pili

the F factor codes for the pili used in transfer of information from the ?

donor cell

what allows the donor cell to remain alive?

conjugation

requires physical contact between donor and recipient cells (by the pili)

conjugation

a recipient bacterial cell takes up free dead/dying DNA from its environment

transformation

in ____ dna is transferred from one cell to another by means of bacterial viruses called bacteriophages

transduction

in transduction dna is transferred from one cell to another by means of bacterial viruses called

bacteriophages

uses recombinant DNA technology which moves the gene of interest from one genome to another utilizing in vitro recombination of dna molecules

genetic engineering

often used as the cloning vectors to close and transfer genes from one cell to another

plasmids and bacteriophages

there are agricultural, industrial, medical, and environmental applications for

genetic engineering

care is taken to "disable" these genetic modified organisms by engineering metabolic defects into them

...

the first step in a bacteriophage infection of a bacteria

Absorption of the bacteriophage to a cell

the second step in a bacteriophage infection of a bacteria

injection of viral dna into bacteria

the third step in a bacteriophage infection of a bacteria

synthesis of viral proteins

the fourth step in a bacteriophage infection of a bacteria

viral nucleic acid replication

the last step in a bacteriophage infection of a bacteria

release of newly synthesized bacteriophages

the transducing particle is a ___ that occurs when a piece of bacterial DNA is taken up by the newly forming bacteriophage. it can then be used to transfer bacterial dna from one cell to another through the bacteriophage.

mistake

the ___ particle is a "mistake" that occurs when a piece of bacterial DNA is taken up by the newly forming bacteriophage. it can then be used to transfer bacterial dna from one cell to another through the bacteriophage.

transducing

two genera of bacteria may survive unfavorable conditions by undergoing

sporulation

the most closely related group of organisms is called

species

simple components of a prokaryotic cell always include

cytoplasm, cell membrane, ribosomes, cell wall, and chromosomes

thick gelatinous layer

capsule

____ contains enzymes for respiration

cell membrane

capsular bacteria appear

mucoid and shiny

bacteria are mainly characterized by their

cell wall

bacteria with thicker cell walls are gram

positive

thread like extensions on the bacteria made of protein

flagella

contains bacterial DNA

plasmid

a form of sexual reproduction

conjugation

fine hair like structures protruding from bacteria cell wall

pili

an example of a bacterial virulence (ability to produce disease) factor

capsule or plasmid

encapsulated bacteria are more ___ than nonencapsulated bacteria

virulent

what characteristic of a bacterial cell wall helps the bacteria maintain its shape?

peptidoglycan cross linking

change in base sequence of dna

mutation

bacteria reproduce by

binary fission

bacteria that prefer reduced oxygen are called

microaerophiles

bacteria that can only grow in the absence of oxygen are called

obligate anaerobes

bacteria requiring complex organic compounds as a food source

heterotrophs

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