What is the funtion of the respiratory system?
to provide the body with essential oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
What four process play a part in respiration?
1. breathing (ventilating)
2. external respiration
3. gas transport (in blood)
What is the funtion of the trachea?
the windpipe; conducts air between the environment and the lungs
Define and describe asthma.
spasms of the broncial muscles that severely restrict air flow; characterized by recurring attacks of wheezing and difficulty breathing, persistent inflammation of the airways
What are the alveoli?
tiny sacs where oxygen diffuses from the air into the blood
What are the alveoli coated with to help them function properly?
surfactant (phospholipid molecules that keep them open)
Describe what occurs within the lungs during breathing.
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the air to be exhaled; pressure changes within the lungs cause breathing; each gas moves from hight to low according to its own pressure; the diaphragm and muscles contract, the ribs move up and out and the volume of the thoracic cavity increases (causing the pressure in the lungs to decrease)
What is tidal volume?
the volume of air inhaled or exhaled during a normal breath
What is oxyhemoglobin?
molecules where most oxygen is carried by the red blood cells (where it is bound to hemoglobin)
What are three ways carbon dioxide is removed by the blood?
1. Dissolved in the blood
2. Carried by hemoglobin
3. As a bicarbonate ion (enzyme in red blood cells combines it with water)
What is breathing controlled by?
respiratory centers in the medulla of the brain
Describe emphysema and its cause.
Reduction in the surface area available for gas exchange (permanent lung damage) and the increased dead air space results in shortness of breath;
Caused by destruction of alveoli, usually by smoking
An inflammation of the lungs that causes fluid to accumulate in the alveoli, reducing gas exchange
What are three types of pneumonia?