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Discrimination

The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons

Relative deprivation

the conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities

Absolute deprivation

The minimum level of subsistence below which families or individuals should not be expected to exist

total discrimination

the combination of current discrimination with past discriminaiton created by poor schools and menial jobs

Institutional discrimination

A denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups resulting from the normal operation of a society

Informal economy

transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government. Common in inner-city neighborhoods and poverty-stricken rural areas

Irregular or underground economy

transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government. Common in inner-city neighborhoods and poverty-stricken rural areas

Dual Labor Market

Division of the economy into two areas of employment, the secondary one of which is populated primarily by minorities working at menial jobs

States' Rights

The prinicple, reinvoked in the late 1940's that holds that each state is sovereign and has the right to order its own affairs without interference by the federal government

Redlining

The pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods

Income

Salaries, wages, and other money received

Wealth

An inclusive term encompassing all of a person's material assets, including land and other types of property

Environmental justice

Efforts to ensure that hazardous substances are controlled so that all communities receive protection regardless of race or socioeconomic circumstances

Affirmative action

Positive efforts to recruit subordinate group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and educaitonal opportunities

Reverse discrimination

Actions that cause better qualified white men to be passed over for women and minority men

Glass Ceiling

The barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership

Glass Wall

A barrier to moving laterally in a business to positions that are more likely to lead to upward mobility

Glass Escalator

The male advantage experienced in occupations dominated by women

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