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King Farouk

Egypt's last ruling king 1936-1952; shared control with Britain; son of King Faud

Gamal Abdel Nasser

Led a military coup in Egypt in 1952; ruled until 1970; established himself as a major Arab force in the Middle East.

Mandate

A country placed under control of another power by international agreement

Palestine

An Arab region that was controlled by Britain after WWI, and also the land the Jews had lived in 2,000 years earlier.

Arab-Israeli Wars

a series of wars between 1948 and 1973 that were fought between Israel and the Arab countries of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon.

Kurds

Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq.

Persian Gulf War

a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members

Primary Product

Raw Material, good example is Oil.

Secondary Products

goods manufactured from primary products.

Petrochemicals

certain products made from oil.

Haj

Pilgrimage to Mecca

Ramadan

ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting

Aswan High Dam

It was built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power.

Tradeoff

An exchange of one benefit for another.

Anwar Sadat

Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)

Muslim Brotherhood

extremist Muslim group that insists Egypt be governed only by Islamic law

Fellahin

Farmers in Egypt who live in villages and work on small plots of land that they rent from landowners

Zionism

A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.

Kibbutz

a collective farm or settlement owned by its members in modern Israel

Law of Return

1950, says that Jews anywhere in the world can immigrate to Israel and become citizens

Orthodox Jews

strict Jews that think Jewish law should help form government policy

Rosh Hashanah

Jewish New Year

Yom Kippur

Day of Atonement, a day for fasting and reflecting on one's sins.

Secular

religious practices play a less important role in their lives.

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