Georgetown High School TAKS Science Objective 2 Student Review

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10th and Exit Level Science TAKS Review Objective 2

Bb

heterozygous

BB

homozygous dominant

bb

homozygous recessive

cytosine (C)

nitrogen base found in DNA and RNA that pairs with guanine (G)
C to G
cars to garages

guanine (G)

nitrogen base found in DNA and RNA that pairs with cytosine (C)
C to G
cars to garages

adenine (A)

nucleotide or nitrogen base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine (T) in DNA and with uracil (U) in RNA
A to T (DNA)
A to U (RNA)
apples to trees (DNA)
apples to umbrellas (RNA)

thyamine (T)

nitrogen base found in DNA that is NOT found in a RNA molecule that pairs with adenine (A)
A to T (DNA)
apples to trees (DNA)

uracil (U)

nitrogen base found in RNA (but not in DNA) that paris with adenine (A)
A to U (RNA)
apples to umbrellas (RNA)

Archabacteria Kingdom

ancient bacteria, live in harsh environments, unicellular, prokaryotes (no nucleus)

Eubacteria Kingdom

common or true bacteria, unicellular, prokaryotes (no nucleus)

Animal Kingdom

multicellular, eukaryotes (have nucleus), heterotrophs (eat food), most can walk/swim

Plant Kingdom

multicellular, eukaryotes (have nucleus), autotroph (make food)

Protist Kingdom

univellular (one cell), eukaryotes (have nucleus), found in water

Fungi Kingdom

multicellular, eukaryotes (have nucleus), decomposers

cell membrane

a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell (controls what enters and leaves the cell)

circulatory system

heart, blood, arteries, veins; moves blood, blood contains oxygen, nutrients, and waste

endocrine system

pituitary gland, thyroid; produces hormones; a chemical communication system (using hormones) by which messages are sent through the bloodstream; helps body maintain homeostasis (balance)

digestive system

mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines; breaks down and absorbs nutrients/water

excretory system

kidney, bladder; EXIT, remove waste

immune system

white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen; protect the body from disease/fight infections

integumentary system

skin, hair, nails; protection

nervous system

brain, spinal cord, neurons (nerve cells); take in info about internal and external environment

reproductive system

organ system which functions in creating offspring (penis and testes in males; ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females), sperm and egg

respiratory system

lungs, nose; inhale oxygen, exhale carbon dioxide

muscular system

muscles, movement

skeletal system

bones; support, produce blood cells

DNA (inherited through sperm and egg cell)

genetic material that controls a cells activities and determines which protiens are made

mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
food→ATP (energy)
cellular respiration

nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction (controls cell)

mutation

any event that changes genetic structure, change in DNA

replication

the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division; copy machine

transcription

the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA (copies DNA's info into mRNA)

translation

the process whereby genetic infomation coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm; protein is made from mRNA (happens in robosome)

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