(1976-1982) Argentinean years of harsh authoritarian rule and rightist death squads followed, which resulted not only in the near elimination of the Communists guerrillas but also kidnapping, torturing and/or killing of some 30,000 Argentine citizens during a period of state terrorism.
Latin American plan to shrink state expenditures (debt) as much as possible and thereby minimize government's interference in the free play of market forces. Laissez Faire Government. Slashing public funding for education, health care, public transport and other areas while permitting the unimpeded flow of foreign capital. Proposed free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy. Big foreign intervention means countries can buy Latin America out
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
(1948) (1934 - present) leftist political party in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century. Democratic Insurgencies and Economic Crisis. Gets corrupt in 1960 from massive influx of money. Upsets students and middle class who begin to demonstrate and march against the them and the Tlatelolco Massacre occurs
1968, The largest single massacre of civilians by government troops in North America since WWII. Entailed the most destructive use of force against Mexican people by their government on student protestors at National University and Tlatelolco square. The massacre became an important historical memory for modern Mexican political dissidents advocating political reform in the one-party rule of Mexican politics. Anywhere from 30-300 people killed, happened ten days before Olympics
President of Argentina (1945-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. In charge for 28 years. Goes from agriculture to industry. United States and European investors dictated markets in Argentina. Doing well with foreign investments but couldn't pay debts and inflation continued to increase.
In 1982, when Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (one of Britain's few remaining colonial outposts) 300 miles off its coast, the British successfully rebuked the Argentines, Had a great economic cost, and lost 225 lives, but had much popular patriotic support for Thatcher. Argentina wanted to reclaim the land for support but Britain won.
1970-1973 Elected President of Chile. a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet. Assassination raid led by Pinochet believed to have been funded by US.
1973-1990, He was the Chilean dictator who was responsible for instituting the reforms set out by the Chicago Boys. His leadership was backed by the US and was carried out through a coup against a democratically elected, leftist leader. At the behest of the advice given by the group, heforcefully transformed the Chilean economy into one of the freest market economies that the world had even seen. He got rid of civil rights and political freedoms. Ruled with an iron fist, Catholic and used dirty war to get rid of opposing people.
an influential political dynasty who ruled Nicaragua as a hereditary dictatorship, their influence exceeding their combined 43 years in the de facto presidency. They ultimately fell a revolution led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front. Suppressed trade unions, community organizers, and left wing organizers. Pocketed foreign aid when the 1972 Managua earthquake struck. Largest drug (cocaine) exporters to the United States.
This was a revolution in which a group of Creoles led by a native of Bluefields raided a Somoza-owned business to gain access to food, guns and money before heading off to join Sandinista fighters.Uprising against Somoza family. Not for aligning with Russia or US. For grassroots democracy and a mixed economy. Were unable to fund their programs because the Sandinistas had to fight off Somoza family.
Anti-Sandinista fighters in the Nicaraguan civil war. They were secretly supplied with American military aid, paid for with money the United States clandestinely made selling arms to Iran. Contra War was that the United States agreed not to be involved with the Nicaraguan war between Sandinistas and Somoza's military while the US actually used money gained from selling arms to Iran, despite trade embargo, to fund the Somoza family and their fight against the Sandanistas.
(1933-1944) & (1952-1959) was the military general President of Cuba from and and was closely allied with the United States government, and American economic interests. At the end of his rule, he was incredibly repressive, although constantly supported by the United States, until he was overthrown by Fidel Castro. Widened the gap between rich and poor Cubans. Eventual defeat by rebels under the command of Che Guevara at the Battle of Santa Clara on January 1st, 1959
(1959 - 1976) Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure. This unsuccessful invasion pushes Castro to become a Communist
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later. 1. Isolated Cuba from everyone, Russia doesn't want to start war with US, US doesn't want war with Russia. 2. US takes upper hand over Russia because Russia backs down. 3. Communications between Russia and US gets better
(1928-1967) an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution, supporting Castro's party as the overthrow Batista. Since his death, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous counter-cultural symbol. Assisted Cuban Forces by training them for repelling the Bay of Pigs invasion.
Armed revolt (26th of July Movement) by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement against the regime of (United State's Proxy leader and) Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista between 1953 and 1959. Batista was finally ousted on 1 January 1959, and was replaced by a revolutionary government led by Castro; First Communist Party of Cuba in October 1965. Castro takes over with problems- foreign companies keep involvement. Inspired to become communist after Bay of Pigs
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He developed economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues. Nkrumah faced many challenges: first, to learn to govern; second, to unify the four territories of the Gold Coast; third, to win his nation's complete independence from the United Kingdom. Nkrumah was successful at all three goals. Within six years of his release from prison, he was the leader of an independent nation.
Convention People's Party (CPP)
Ruled over Ghana when it became the first post-colonial independent country in black Africa. It was organized by Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana. Organized nonviolent protests in support of independence and helped to convince the British to give up their colony. Under Nkrumah's personal rule. This was the only legal party during much of Ghana's early years of independence.
West African Christian culture in the North that created the Baifran state to fight for independence against Nigerian government. Greatly celebrates birth of a son.
these people spoke a common language and originally belonged to a number of small city-states in the forests on the southern edge of the savanna in what is today Benin and southwestern Nigeria. favored by the British when the British controlled them
one of Nigeria's three major ethnic groups, are predominantly Muslim and live mostly in the north
Republic of Biafra
(30 May 1967 to 15 January 1970) A Nigerian ethnic group that declared independence in 1960s in oil district. Led to unrest in the rest of the country. A separatist movement led to three year civil war with estimated one million casualties. This led to lasting competition between ethnic groups for economic and political power in their individual regions. Composed of the Southern Christian Igbos and led to the Nigerian Civil war.
(1967-1970) The Nigerian Civil War, Nigeria vs Biafran state. Biafran state was established by Igbos, the Christians in Southern Nigeria, against the Muslim North. A tragic and bloody civil war pitted elements of independent Africa's best national armies against each other. The larger federal forces slowly chipped away at Biafran State. The estimated death toll soared above one million. the overwhelming majoroty of who were Igbo civilians, mostly refugees, who died of starvation. Biafrans surrendered in January of 1970 to the Nigerian State, which united all of Nigeria.
Kenyan Nationalist who used strong leadership to help gain Kenya's independence, and became the first president; presented Kikuyu grievances to the British government in London. Leader of Kenyan African Union
Kenyan African Union (KAU)
Kenya's dominant party from the early 1960s to 2002. It played an important role in uniting people behind the idea of independence for Kenya and was for many years the only legal party in the country. Led by Jomo Kenyatta.
Mau Mau Uprising
(1952 to 1960) an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonialist rule. The core of the resistance was formed by members of the Kikuyu ethnic group, along with smaller numbers of Embu and Meru. The uprising failed militarily, though it may have hastened Kenyan independence. It created a rift between the white colonial community in Kenya and the Home Office in London that set the stage for Kenyan independence in 1963. Practiced and preached Pan-Africanism
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.
African National Congress (ANC)
A democratic organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)
(March 21, 1960) township, by Johannesburg. Pan Africanist Congress led campaign of blacks to surrender themselves for arrest and led to small clashes and then the police firing, killing and wounding up to 70 African non-violent protestors.
South Africa, Leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid. He was later elected president in 1994 when free elections were established, and was instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996.
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protest and responses from the government that helped end apartheid. Trying to teach English to the students and the Africans were upset
South African Founder of the Black Consciousness Movement, he inspired blacks in South Africa to express their pride as a people and to confront the apartheid system as a group. His death in police custody angered members of all races and ultimately served to intensify the struggle against the South African regime both inside and outside the country's borders
The leading spokesman of passive resistance to apartheid in the 1980's. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 for his attempts to replace apartheid with a racially equal South African society.
F.W. de Klerk
Elected as the last white South African president in 1989. He legalized the African National Congress and also released Nelson Mandela from prison. This started a new era in South Africa and worked with the ANC to end apartheid