Psych Exam 1

Created by sarahfah11 

Upgrade to
remove ads

99 terms

Pseudo

Means false psychology not based on scientific testing

phrenology

personality traits revealed by shape of skull and bumps on your head

palmistry

lines on your hands predict future and reveal personality

graphology

personality revealed by your handwriting

astrology

position of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior

Barnum effect

tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if stated in general terms

William Wundt

father of psychology

William James

wrote 1890 psych textbook

Mary Calkins

APA's first female president

Sigmund Freud

Austrian physician first study was with hysteria and nervous disorders thought all humans were bad unconscious mind

Watson and Skinner

Behaviorists thought psych should only evaluate behaviors(only things a person says, does, or feels)

Maslow and Rogers

emphasized effects of environment and need for love and acceptance; humanists believed people were good

psychology

scientific study of behavior and mental processes; way of asking and answering questions

Goals of Psychology

description of behaviors
understanding
prediction
control

description of behaviors

naming and classifying various observable measurable behaviors

understanding

the causes of behavior

prediction

forecasting behavior accurately

control

altering conditions that affect behavior

neuroscience

how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

evolutionary

how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes

humanistic

self esteem, self worth

biblical

how does creation interact with creator; how does sin?

psychodynamic

how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

behavioral

observable behaviors

behavior genetics

how genes influence behaviors

cognitive

how we encode, process, store and retrieve info; most commonly used

social-cultural

how behaviors and thinking very across situations and cultures

developmental

study changing abilities from womb to tomb

personality

investigate our persistent traits

clinical counseling

studies, assesses, treats people with psych disorders, helps cope with academic, voc, and marital challenges

educational

studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings

industrial/organizational

studies and advises on behavior in the work place

clinical psychologist

studies, assesses and treats troubled people with psychotherapy

psychiatrist

medical doctors who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients

how do psychologists ask and answer questions

scientific method
description
correlation
experimentation

theory

an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events

hypothesis

a testable prediction often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory

research

requires us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression

descriptive methods survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people

wording effects

wording can change the results of a survey

random sampling

if each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample. If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid

naturalistic observation

observing and recording the behavior of animals

case study

a technique in which 1 person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles

correlation

when 1 trait or behavior accompanies another

Illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists

cause and effect

experimentation is the backbone of psychological research, experiments use experimental control to isolate causes and effects

experimental control

allows researchers to study the influence of 1 or 2 independent variables on a dependent variables while holding other influences constant

independent variable

factor manipulated by the experimenter effect of independent variable is focus of study

dependent variable

a factor that may change in response to an IV in psych it is a behavior or mental process

double blind procedure

the patients and the experiementer's assistants remain unaware of who receives the drug or placebo

random assignment

randomly assigning between placebo and real drug minimizes pre-existing differences between the two

Neurons

billions of interconnected cells

dendrites

receive messages

axon terminal

sends messages

action potential

a brief electrical charge that travels down and axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane

all or none responses

strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potential speed or strength

synapse

junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of cell body of the receiving neuron.

re-uptake

neurotransmitters in the synapse are re absorbed into the sending neuron

neurotransmitter

chemicals released sending neuron travel across synapse and bind to receptor on receiving neuron

serotonin

pathway is fast acting and involved in mood regulation

dopamine

pathway involved with schizophrenia and parkinson's disease

nervous system

consists of all nerve cells. Body's speedy, electro-chemical communication system

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

sensory and motor neurons that connect the cns to the rest of the body

sensory neurons

carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the cns

motor neurons

carry outgoing information from the cns to muscles and glands. Interneurons connect the two neurons

brainstem

primary part of brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. it is responsible for autonomic survival functions

medulla

base of the brainstem that controls heart beat and breathing

thalamus

is the brain's sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

frontal lobe

sense of self, motor control, and higher mental abilities such as reasoning and planning

parietal lobe

sensaion such as touch, temperature, and pressure

occipital lobe

vision

cerebellum

posture, coordination, muscle tone, and memory of skills and habits

temporal lobe

hearing and language

limbic system

hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of thalamus

amygdala

consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to emotions of fear and anger

cerebral cortex

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemisphere. It is the body's ultimate control and processing center

endocrine system

slow chemical communication system. communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands

hormones

chemicals synthesized by glands that are secreted in the blood stream. hormones affect the brain and other body tissues

EEG

an amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain's surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

PET Scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task

divided brain

our brain has 2 hemispheres. The left processes reading, writing, speaking, mathematics and comprehension skills

Characteristics passed on from parents

belief, faith, politics, abilities, intelligence, and health

chromosomes

contain dna are are situated in the nucleus of a cell. each cell contains 46 chromosomes.

genes

segments within dna that consist of genes that produce proteins to determine out development

twins and adoption studies

uses sets of twins to study the effects of heredity and environment

temperament

refers to a person's stable emotional reactivity and intensity. identical twins express similar temperaments suggesting heredity predisposes temperament

newborn temperaments

easy children
difficult children
slow-to-warm up children
remaining children

authoritarian parents

enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority; children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking in curiosity

overly permissive parents

give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or don't hold children accountable for their actions; children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave

african american families

emphasize loyalty, interdependence, perseverance, respect, and resourcefulness

hispanic families

stress family values, pride, loyalty, respect, and cooperation

asian-american families

stress group loyalty, interdependence, achievement, respect, and self-discipline

arab-american families

emphasize obedience, discipline, success, hospitality, hardwork, and achievement

zygote

a fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse

fetus

embryo turns into fetus at 9 weeks

teratogens

chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus

sensitive periods

a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences. a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set