AP Language - Logical Fallacies

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Slippery Slope

If A happens, then B, C etc. will follow

Hasty Generalization

conclusion based on insufficient evidence; an assumption based on an inadequate sample

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc

conclusion that assumes that if B occurred after A, then B caused A

Genetic Fallacy

conclusion that the origins of something determines its nature, character, or worth

Begging the Claim

The conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim

Circular Argument

Restates the argument rather than proving it

Either/or

conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only 2 sides or outcomes

ad hominem

attack on the person rather than the idea

red herring

diversionary tactic that avoids key issues

Straw Man

oversimplifies opponents viewpoint and attacks the shallow viewpoint

beg the question

leads audience to accept conclusion without considering evidence

non sequitor

conclusion does not follow the premise

Tu Quoque

"You too"; you should not believe this person because they are a bad person or hypocrite

overgeneralization

making a logical leap far greater than what the data allows

ad populum

emotional appeal to the common values or deep biases of the masses

appeal to ignorance

the claim must be true simply because nobody can disprove it

loaded questions

questions worded unfairly so any answer will support the writers assumptions

tautology

empty statement that is composed of simpler statements that make it logically true

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