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Processing information involves:

performing arithmetic or logical operations on information that is input.

Producing output involves:

communicating information to the outside world.

Hardware components are:

physical parts of a computer system

The most common input devices include:

mice and keyboards.

The primary output device for computers is a:

video monitor

The hardware device commonly referred to as the "brain" of the computer is the:

CPU.

CPU stands for:

central processing unit.

The CPU is also known as the:

microprocessor.

The primary difference between RAM and secondary storage devices is:

the length of time data is stored.

RAM is also known as:

primary storage.

If a user needs information instantly available to the CPU, it should be stored:

in RAM.

Storage devices include all of the following EXCEPT:

RAM.

The input, output, and storage devices are known as:

peripheral devices.

Digital means that computer information is discrete and countable, subdivided into:

digits.

The smallest unit of information a computer can understand and process is known as a:

bit.

A bit can have two values:

0 and 1.

Binary means:

there are two possibilities: on and off.

A group of 8 bits is known as a:

byte.

The binary system uses the power of:

2.

A byte can represent any number between 0 and:

255.

The most widely used code that represents each character as a unique 8-bit code is:

ASCII.

ASCII stands for:

American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

In ASCII, ____________ characters can be created.

256

An advanced coding scheme that incorporates Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, and Japanese is known as:

Unicode.

1,024 bytes of data is a:

kilobyte.

Approximately 1,000 megabytes is a:

gigabyte.

The largest storage devices commonly available today are able to store:

terabytes.

The unit that transforms input into output is known as the:

CPU.

The motherboard is the:

circuit board that contains a CPU and other chips.

Backward compatibility means that:

a Pentium 4 chip can handle processing previously done by a Pentium III.

Linux is a(n):

operating system.

The clock of a computer system is the:

timing device that produces electrical pulses to synchronize the computer's operations.

A computer's clock speed is measured in:

gigahertz.

The word size of a typical PC's CPU is:

32 or 64 bits.

The ____________, by Intel, is a 64-bit processor.

Itanium

When two processors are employed in a computer, it is known as:

parallel processing.

Units that work together in the CPU include all EXCEPT:

RAM.

The CPU's ALU contains:

registers.

The part of the CPU that instructs the bus unit to read instructions stored at a certain memory address is known as the:

prefetch unit.

The storage area for the next likely data or instruction to be processed, preventing bottlenecks and slowing of the system, is known as:

cache.

RAM stands for:

Random Access Memory.

Information stored in RAM is considered volatile, which means it is:

not held permanently, only temporarily.

The memory that stores the computer's date, time, and calendar is the:

CMOS.

The time for the processor to retrieve data from memory is measured in:

nanoseconds.

The circuit board that contains RAM chips is known as a:

SIMM.

The permanently etched program in ROM that automatically begins executing the computer's instructions is the:

BIOS.

The groups of wires that transfer data are known as the:

system buses.

Expansion cards are inserted into:

slots.

External devices such as printers, keyboards, and modems are known as:

peripherals.

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