Everything that exists is made of
Matter or Energy
Anything that takes up spaces or has mass
Very tiny pieces of matter composed with very small constituents
The purest form of matter. They all have different numbers of protons
The number given to an element. Depends on the number of protons
___ and ___ have mass
Protons and neurons
have the same number of protons but a different number or neurons
Chemical bonds depend on
When one atom gives up or gains an electron. Very strong bond
Giving up an electron and becomes more positive
Gaining an electron and become more negative
When you share electrons between two atoms. The strongest bond.
The weakest bond. Weak bond/attraction between a molecule and a hydrogen atom. Holds DNA together
Law of Conservation
Matter cannot be created or destroyed
What you put together to make a product
Any type of particle that grows
Eats away DNA and tissue.
Gets rid of free radicals and protects you from damage
Maintains PH in the body
PH maintains this in the body.
Important to cells. Deals with acids and bases.
Has 4 electrons on the outer orbit. You cannot make anything without it. Made through covalent bonding.
Amino Acids (protein) and fatty acids (COOH)
Important for carbohydrates (OH)
Amino Acids, ATP (NH2)
Nucleic acids, ATP, adding enzymes can turn off or add them. (PO-)
Digests things like starch or sugars
Does not solve in water
Steroids backbones are made of this
Not good for you. Bad for heart. Solid at room temperature.
One bond that is easy to break
Multiple bonds, easy to break
Most important type of lipid.
Lets cells work, and is a wall protector.
It forms cell membranes
Most common fat.
Regulate cell function
Made of amino acids
__ has carbon backbone
Primary Protein Structure
Amino acid sequence itself
Secondary Protein Structure
Simple folding and amino acid sequence
Tertiary Protein Structure
Actual 3D structure, and amino acid folding
Quaternary Protein Structure
Multiple proteins that come together to form functional protein (hemoglobin)
2 components are sugar, phosphate, and W base
Smallest unit of life
Has Nucleus, Organelles, Cytosol Cytoskeleton, and Plasma Membrane
1st Cells, No nucleus, and has a simple one circular piece of DNA.
The region outside the nucleus, but still in the plasma membrane
The double layer on the nucleus
Little channels that allow things in and out of the nucleus
3D folding happens here
Adds sugar to proteins
Post office of the cell
Processes and distributes proteins from ER
When repackages proteins that gets put into vesicles and leaves the cell.
Makes Lipids. This is called Lipid Synthesis/
Detoxifies harmful chemicals, and is in fat cells
The garbage men of the cell
Turns it into amino acids
Made from the Golgi
Power house of the cell
Energy conversions occure
Scaffolding within your cell
Imports from transport and movement
Filament structure and network of proteins
Serves for support and gives cell shape
Serves as cells skeleton
Stabilizes the organelles and holds in place
Largest structure and super important for cell transport
Acts like a railroad to carry vesicles through cell
Outer protective lining around plasma membrane
Gives plant extra support
Limits water absorption
Protects from harmful substances
Large organ made of water
Rids and degrades old waste material
Stores material, nutrients and pigments
Stores starch and coloration
A spot weld. Very strong connection (skin)
Makes cells water proof and seals them together so nothing can get between them.
Protein assemblages that form a channel between the cells. Allows cells to be in contact with one another