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Group of closely associated cells that perform related functions and are similar in structure

Tissue

Part in contact with outside

Apical Epithelium

Part in contact with supporting connective tissue

Basal Epithelium

What are the four projections found on the apical surface of epithelial tissue?

Microvilli, Cilia, Cell Junctions, Basal Lamina

What projection maximizes surface area, for example in the small intestine absorbs nutrients into blood?

Microvilli

What projection aids in movemen of mucous/other substances across epithelial surfaces for example in the respiratory tract, moves contaminated mucous in order to spit or swallow?

Cilia

What projections connects cells that are found very frequently?

Cell Junctions

What projections anchor epithelial tissues to connective tissue in order to recieve nutrients, oxygen and exchange carbon dioxide and waste?

Basal Lamina

which projections are not found in all epithelial tissue?

microvilli and cilia

What must happen in order for epithelial tissue to recieve oxygen an nutrients?

oxygen and nutrients from the capillaries in the connective tissue must diffuse to get to the next tissue

one layer of cells

simple

multiple layers of cells (2 or more)

stratified

one layer, but appears as multiples

pseudostratified

cells wider than tall (plate-like)

squamous

cells are as wide as tall, like cubes

cubodial

cells are taller than they are wide, like columns

columnar

What kind of epithelial tissue do we have for our skin an why?

Stratified (multiple layers) because we need protection from mechanical stress and it is constantly being replaced

What surface do we use to classify the typed of layers?

Apical surface

Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei an sparse cytoplasm, the simplest of epithelia

Simple Squamous

Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protections in not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae

Simple Squamous

What are the two key thoughts when determining between simple vs stratified?

Movement an exchange, we want something with one/thin layer in order to have movement or exchange occur easily

What is unique about simple squamous?

it is too thin to conatin any type of organells or to house any machinery to carry out absorption

Where do we find simple squamous and give one good reason why.

In the repiratory tract because when we inhale air, there is more oxygen in the air than there is in our blood, so the oxygen will difuse into blood an we need these tissues to be very thin in these areas to help the diffusion/exchange process

Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei

Simple Cuboidal

Secretion and absorption

SImply Cuboidal

Where do we find simply cuboidal and give one good reason why.

Digestive tract beacuse it requires energy for absorption and secretion so we need area to keep organelles/machinery for absorption but also tissue so that we can have movement an exchange.

single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucous-secreting unicellular glands

Simple Columnar

absorption; secretion of mucous, enzymes and other substances; ciliated type propels mucous (or reproductive cells) by ciliary actions

Simple Columnar

Where do we find simple columnar and give one good reason why.

In the digestive tract going from stomach to anal in order to move things through the digestive system but still have exchange and movement

single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain unicellular glads and bear cilia

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

secretion, particularly of mucus ; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

Where do we find pseudostratified ciliated columnar and give one good reason why.

found in sperm carrying ducts and repsiratory tract in order to move things along

thick membrane comosed of several cells layers; surface cells are flattened while basal cells are columnar and cuboidal, surface cells are full of keratin and dead, basal cells active in mitosis

Stratified Squamous

protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion

Stratified Squamous

where do we find stratified squamous?

we find it in the skin epidermis and esophagus

generally two layers of cube-like cells

stratified cuboidal

protection

stratified cuboidal

where do we find stratified cuboidal?

In large ducts of sweat glands

is fat vascularized or avascularized

well vascularized

embryonic mesoderm is made from?

mesenchyme

what are the three types of protein fibers in the extracellular matrix?

collagen, elastic and reticular

type of fiber that resits tension type forces, largest

collagen

type of fiber that has more give/flexibility/stretch, thinnest

reticular

type of fiber that stretches and recalls like a rubberband

elastic

what produces these three fibers?

fibroblasts

name three defesnse cells

macrophage, lymphocyte, neutrophill

what is interesting about ground cells/matrix in areolar tissue?

there is alot of matrix between the cells

several cell layers; basal cells are usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated and columnar

stratified columnar

protection and secretion

stratified columnar

where do we find stratified columnar?

male urethra because fluids flowing can cause friction

resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surfaces cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch

transitional epithelium

streatches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine

transitional epithelium

what does glandular tissue consists of?

Exocine: release products into ducts/tubes where they are delivered to specific locations.
Endocrine: products are released into blood circulation where they interact with certain hormones

What are the three cell junctions or cell to cell contacts?

desmosomes, tight juntions, and gap junctions

anchor cells together where high mechanical stree and forces are present such as in the heart with constant movement that may cause damage

desmosomes

barrier to keep things from getting from one tissue to another such as in the blood-brain and blood-testes barrier

tight junctions

cell to cell contact where passages travel from one cell to the next such as electrical impulses and flow of nutrients such as allowing a whole chamber to contract all at once

gap junctions

hold cells together so they do not get pulled apart under mechanical stress

linker proteins

Name the four sub classes of connective tissues

Connective Tissue Proper, Cartilage, Bone Tissue, Blood

List some characteristics of cartilage

does not regenerate well, provides structure and shape, only chonrocytes, 80% water, avascular and not innervated

List some characteristics of bone

support (framework), protection and nutrient storage(calcium and phosphate); osteoblasts and osteoclasts and blood vessels

List some characteristics of Blood

transport of oxygen and heat, cells are spread out

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