Fluid and Electrolyte Chart

Created by gretchencolleen 

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32 terms

135-145 mEq/l

normal sodium

sodium

major ECF cation

Hyponatremia

when sodium level is below 135

hypernatremia

when sodium level is above 145

hypovolemia

ECF volume deficit; happens when Na+ and H2O are often proportionately lost

hypervolemia

ECF volume excess: happens when Na+ and H2O are often proportionately gained

primary water deficit

no available water, unable to respond to thirst, diabetes insipidus

primary water deficit

decreased weight, decreased turgor, dry mucous membranes, increase hematocrit, increase hemoglobin, decreased urine volume, decreased BP, thirst, confusion are symptoms of

primary water excess

SIADH and excess H2O intake indicate

primary water excess

weight gain, edema, hemodilution, and bounding pulse are signs and symptoms of

3.5-5.5 mEq/l

normal potassium level

potassium

principle ICF cation, impt. for muscle contraction all over body. Especially impt. for rhythmic cardiac contraction. controlled by kidneys

hypokalemia

potassium less than 3.5; diuretics cause this

hyperkalemia

potassium more than 5.5; acute renal failure and burns and crush injuries cause this

hypokalemia

muscle weakness and fatigue, and heart dysrhythmias are signs and symptoms of this

hyperkalemia

muscle irritability is a symptom of this

9-11/dl

normal calcium level

calcium

Important for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood clotting, bones and teeth formation

hypocalcemia

calcium levels below 9 mg

hypercalcemia

calcium levels over 11.0 mg

hypocalcemia

decreased dietary intake and vitamin d deficiency are causes of

hypercalcemia

prolonged immobility is a cause of hypercalcemia

hypocalcemia

numbness, tingling of extremities, muscle cramps/twitching, tetany, convulsions, positive trousseau's sign, chvostek's sign

positive trousseau's sign

carpopedal spasm with BP cuff inflated on arm

chvostek's sign

facial muscle twitching when tap facial nerve in front of ear

hypercalcemia

pathologic fracture that takes place in weak or diseased area of the bones is a symptom of

respiratory acidosis

carbonic acid excess; resp. tract is source of problem

respiratory acidosis

any condition which interferes with normal respiration so that CO2 retained: pneumonia

respiratory acidosis

signs and symptoms often related to respiratory dz; they include resp. difficulty, increase pulse and increase respiratory

respiratory alkalosis

carbonic acid deficit; caused by any condition causing hyperventilation so that excess CO2 is "blown off"

metabolic acidosis

base bicarbonate deficit; excess acids produced, uses up available bicarb; diabetes

metabolic acidosis

increase rate and depth of resp. to "blow off" more CO2; kidneys will excrete more H+ (if no renal failure)

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