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Huguenot

Protestants in France

Divine Right

The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth

Absolute Monarch

a ruler with complete unrestricted power in the government

Pragmatic Sanction

contract that stated Maria Theresa would be the heir to the Austrian throne, even as a woman

Edict of Nantes

an act of religious toleration

Mercantilism

the theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys

Petition of Right

1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.

Habeas Corpus

a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime

English Civil War

fought between those who supported Charles I (royalists also called cavaliers) and those who opposed him (roundheads). Roundheads led to victory by Oliver Cromwell. They arrested and tried King Charles for treason, he was found guilty and executed

Commonwealth

time when Oliver Cromwell was in charge from 1649-1658, he abolished the monarchy, and the House of Lords and sent Parliament home. He ruled as a dictator

Restoration

parliament invited Charles II to rule as king, but made him sign Habeas Corpus. the time of Charles II's reign, the return of the monarchy

Glorious Revolution

time when Mary and William took the throne with no bloodshed or violence

Intendants

government agents who collected taxes and administered justice

Boyars

Russian Nobility

Versailles

Louis XIV built his palace here and made his nobles live and wait on him

St. Petersburg

The new capital of Russia set by Peter the Great on the Neva River so Russia could have a warm water port to be associated with European Affairs

Junkers

Prussian Nobility

Thirty Years' War

1618, Protestants in Bohemia rebelled against Ferdinand II, a Catholic, prompting the revolt of German Princes

Peace of Westphalia

Ended the Thirty Years' War, weakened Hapsburg states (Russia and Spain), strengthened France, Made German Provinces free from Holy Roman Empire, introduced new method of Peace negotiations. Abandoned idea of Catholic European Empire

English Bill of Rights

basis of US Bill of Rights, created the Cabinet, created the Parliamentary system of government

Spanish Armada

Spanish naval fleet built by Philip II to take down Protestant England

Seven Years' War

French and Indian War, first European war with Russia involved, no territory change in Europe, ended with The Treaty of Paris 1763

Causes of Absolutism

decline of feudalism, rise of cities, growth of national kingdoms, growing middle class, decline of the Church's authority

Cabinet

Prime minister in charge, a middle man between Monarch and Parliament

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