declared that psychology should be a scientific study-such as chemistry or biology- of conscious experience. Founded the first psych research lab.
the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. Emerged through Edward Titchener.
careful, systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience.
based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness. Emerged through William James, psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences.
heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior. Developed by Freud
a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior. Developed by John B. Watson.
any observable response or activity by an organism.
No need to study mental events. Environmental factors can mold behavior. Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. People are controlled by their environment, not by themselves- free will is an illusion.
the theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. Rogers was one of the primary architects of this movement, believing that human behavior is governed primary by each individual's sense of self.
the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. Involves thinking or conscious experience.
the tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways.
examines the basic behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations.
uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human culture.
the science that studies the behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
4 goals of psychology
Describe, understand, predict, control
studying the change and growth over a life span
studying individual and group behaviors and responses across situations and altruism and bystander behavior
conducting lab studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology and cognition
Looks at genetic influences and factors on behavior: movement, sleep, split-brain research
Explores higher level mental processes like memory, reasoning, information processing and creativity
Define, describe and measure the stability of behaviors and personality traits over time
Looks at the measurement of behavior through the development of psychological tests
Studies how people learn and the best ways to teach them.
promotion and maintenance of physical health and the causations and treatments of illness
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