The ___ religion emerged in India between 7th and 5th centires BC and are followers of Jina.
The Jain ideal of non-violence and respect for all life is called what?
Jains revere 5 classes of being. What are they and what do they mean?
1. arhat - great teacher
2. siddha - saint
3. acharyas - spiritual teacher
4. teaching monks
Ideally Jains seek an _____ life, denying themselves worldly comforts, and that this will get rid of bad karama accumulated.
What are the 5 great vows?
2. not stealing
4. renouncing possessions
5. telling the truth
______ take less strict vows similar to the 5 Great Vows, and are vegetarian.
Why are some religions referred to as primal?
Because they existed long before today's major world religions
What do primal religions believe?
In the existence of many active spirits who have great influence over human life and with whom contact can be made through rituals.
Who conducts these rituals?
Priests or shamans (medicine men)
What causes problems & how are they resolved?
By appeaseing the evil or displeased spirits
_____ is the idea that all things have a spirit.
_____ is the power of the spirits.
People honor the spirts of their dead _____.
A ______ is an object that represents the ancestor of a group.
What do shamans use?
What is divination?
getting spiritual information through spiritual means like reading bones
What do shamans do?
1. heal people
2. predict events
3. resolve disputes
4. ward off natural disasters
5. casts evil spirits out of people
_____ or ______ are used by shamans to ward off evil spirits.
charms or amulets
Shamans wear ____ which are believed to be powerful.
____ is forbidding to touch dangerous spirit objects.
Unusual natural happenings call ____ are used to predict events.
____ is the popular relgion of Haiti that uses dolls to curse people.
In some cultures taking the ____ of an enemy is thought to bring benefits like fertility or prosperity.
Around 2000 BC, India was invaded by Aryan people who brought hymns called _____.
What were the Vedas about?
The Aryan peoples Vedic gods which were the earliest known Indian deities.
What are some examples of the Vedic gods?
The fire god, Agni,
the sun god Surya
the warrior god , Indra
____ is the Hindu creator god.
_____ is the Hindu destroyer god.
_____ is the protector god.
______ has 10 avatars, or incarnations, where the god became human in myths.
One avatar, _____, is the hero of the epic poem Ramayana, and he defeated Ravana, the ruler of Sri Lanka, who abducted his wife Sita.
One avatar, ____, killed the demon king Kamsa and is known as a lover.
______ is the 9th Vishnu avatar.
____ is a terrifying slayer of demons and has a blood smeared black body and can release people from reincarnation.
____ , Vishnu's wife, is the goddess of wealth and good fortune.
____, the wife of Brahma, is the goddess of the arts.
The elephant headed ____ is he god of good luck.
The monkey god ____ helped Rama rescue his abducted wife Sita.
_____ , the 8th avatar of Vishnu, is worshipped as god, often as a child who brings joy.
____ is the cycle of death and rebirth.
Hindus strive to attain ____, or liberation from the cycle of samsara.
The Bhagavad Gita lists paths to moksha. Name 3 paths.
1. the path of wisdom (meditation)
2. the path of action (performing assigned duty)
3. the path of devotion (dedication to a god)
___ is the law of cause and effect that rules life and rebirth.
A person's ____ is his or her moral duty which varies with a person's social position, javi, or ____.
dharma / caste
_____ is the ultimate reality, the "world soul" that Hindus want to become one with after escapting reincarnation cycle.
The ___ is one's eternal soul.
The ____, meaning "knowledge", consists of 4 collections of ancient texts composed before 1000 BC.
The epic poem, ____, tells of Rama defeating the demon Ravana, the ruler of Sri Lank, to rescue his abducted wife Sita, with the help of the monkey god Hanuman.
____ (1869-1948) did non violent protest against British rule in India.
Hindus are assumed to be born into particular ____ as a result of past karma
What does a persons assigned caste determine?
Their jobs, marriage partners and social barriers
What is the highest caste?
The priestly caste or Brahmins
What are the different castes?
1. The priestly caste (Brahmins)
2. The warriors & rulers (Kshatriyas)
3. The merchant & farmers (Vaishyas)
4. The laborer caste (Shudras)
5. The untouchables (Dalits)
Describe the untouchables.
The lowest social level, beyond the caste system and are banned from social life.
One way to moksha is to become a ____, an escetic holy man and renounce normal life.
Spiritual teachers call ____ teach the sacred texts.
What is India's symbol of earth's fertility and are revered?
____ exercises can help achieve moksha through mental discipline.
The ______ River is sacred and worshiped as the goddess Ganga.
___ is the autumn festival of lights is celebrated along with many over festivals.
People of the Jain religion are followers of a _____, or conqueror, a religious leader.
Jinas have the highest level of knowledge and can show followers how to achieve liberation from the cycle of reincarnation by attaining ___ __ ________.
The 3 Jewels
What are the 3 Jewels?
Right knowledge, faith, and conduct
The sect of ________________ believes monks should go around naked.
Monks take the __ _________ _______.
5 Great Vows
Where can laypeople worship?
At home or in the temples
_________ was founded in southern India.
When was Sikhism founded?
In the 16th century
______ __________ was the founder of Sikhism, who promoted a faith that stressed individual relationships with God.
How many gods does a Sikh believe in?
A Sikh follows the ____ _________, a successive line of gurus each chosen by his predecessor.
The aim of a Sikh is to move through 5 spiritual ________ to achieve liberation from rebirth (called _________).
The gurus use the _____ to refer to God an mediate on that name and repeat it as a _________.
Sikhs have fought recently for a separate _____ state in the area between India and Pakistan.
Sikhs stand out form other groups because their men let their ______ _______ and wear the ____________.
Hair grow; turban
Sikh worship is singing hymns and listening to readings from the ________ __________ _______, which is known as the Book.
Guru Granth Sahib
Adult Sikhs wear the 5 K's. What are they?
Uncut hair, knee-length shorts, short sword, special comb, steel bangle