Know the reasons for Luther's ninety-five thesis.
They were problems he identified with the Catholic Church
Why were indulgences sold?
A type of pardon that excuses individuals from doing penance for their sins and thus facilitated their entry into heaven. Luther thought they were signs of greed, hypocrisy, and moral rot in the Roman Catholic Church. He called it a massive fraud on an unsuspecting public. TO RAISE FUNDS FOR ST. PETER'S BASCILLA
List Luther's issues with the Catholic Church.
Got 95 Theses, and an indulgence is one. A document by Martin Luther in which, he denounced the sale of indulgences. It was rapidly reproduced with new printing technology, so news of it spread fast.
Why did Henry VIII confront the pope?
He wanted a divorce because his wife did not give birth to a male.
What was Calvin's model Protestant community?
Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s. Calvinist missionaries were successful in Scotland, Low Countries, also in France and England
What is the significance of The Council of Trent?
It was an assembly of bishops, cardinals, & other high church officials who met to discuss matters of doctrine and reform. Drew on works of St. Thomas Aquinas. Required church authorities to observe strict standards of morality and made them est. schools to prepare priests
Who was Ignatius Loyola and why was he important?
Ignatius started the society of Jesus Goal was to be disciplined, educated representatives of the Church throughout the world. Rigorous religious and secular education. They were effective missionaries. They made Christianity a genuinely global religion.
What is a reason for the explosion of witch hunting in the 16th century?
They were held accountable for crop failures, miscarriages, etc. This was a possible consequence of capitalist tensions and gender roles.
What was the result of the religious tensions in the Dutch provinces?
Religious conflicts of Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship
What was the most destructive European conflict prior to the 20th century? Why did it occur and what is its significance?
The 30 years war started when the Holy Roman Emperor attempted to force his Bohemian subjects to go back Roman Catholic. Main battleground was Germany; it was the most destructive European conflict before WWI. It led to the deaths of about 1/3 of Germany's population
Who is Charles V and why is he significant?
He inherited a vast empire of far-flung holdings. He was unable to establish a unified state. Protestant Reformation provides cover for local princes to assert greater independence. Foreign opposition from France, Ottoman Empire. He later abdicated the throne and retired to a monastery in Spain.
Who are Fernando and Isabel and what are their significance to the time period?
Founded Spanish Inquisition Original task: search for secret Christian practitioners of Judaism or Islam, later task: search for Protestants. It was used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents. It was the most distinctive institution that relived on religious justifications to advance state ends. It discouraged the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism. It even imprisoned the archbishop of Toledo (the highest Roman Catholic church official in Spain)
Which two countries developed into constitutional governments?
England and the Dutch Republic (Netherlands)
What were Louis XIV's policies and how did they affect the French?
created absolute monarchy and this was new to Europe
"Crush the damned thing!" Who said it and under what circumstances? Why is it important?
Voltaire wanted to "crush" the church
"l'etat c'est moi"
means "I am the state", said to be have said by Louis XIV
Peace of Westphalia
ended the Thirty Years' War. Laid foundation for system of independent sovereign states. Abandoned notion of religion unity. Did not end war between European states
Balance of Power
No ruler wanted to see another state dominate all the others. Diplomacy based on shifting alliances in national interests
said society would prosper as individuals pursued their own interests. laws of supply and demand determine price. He argued that capitalism would ultimately improve society as a whole. CAPITALISM
Published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686. Offered mathematical explanations of laws that govern movements of bodies. Newton's work symbolized the scientific revolution--direct observation and mathematical reasoning. GRAVITY