financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
One of the Big Four with Leland Stanford, he was involved in both railroads and shipping. He founded Newport News Shipping, the largest privately owned shipyard in the United States.
Interstate Commerce Act
Approved on February 4, 1887 the Interstate Commerce Act created an Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the conduct of the railroad industry. With this act the railroads became the first industry subject to Federal regulation.
J. P Morgan
Most Powerful banker of the late 1800s, head of US Steel Company first person to have 1 billion dollars
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
A legal body created to hold stock in many companies, often in the same industry
total control of a type of industry by one person or one company
John D. Rockefeller
Entrepreneur behind the Standard Oil Company which, through his aggressive business tactics such as vertical integration, the trust, and the holding company, grew to control 90 to 95 percent of the oil refining in the country; made a fortune which he then distributed among causes such as education and medicine, becoming the world's leading philanthropist.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Law passed by Congress in 1890 that outlawed any companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce
US v EC Knight Co
1895-Sherman Antitrust Act ruled to not be able to break up a sugar monopoly, because Congress could only regulate commerce, not manufacturing
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
The "New South" movement developed after the Civil War and centered on the belief that the South must abandon its single-minded preoccupation with agriculture and pursue industrial and commercial development.
Terence V Powderly
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 - Chinese immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S
Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.
1894 railway workers strike for higher wages against the Pullman Company, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction (a court order to stop something) to prevent the strike.
Eugene V. Debs
He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic party.
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
William Graham Sumner
American professor at Yale who wrote "What Social Classes Owe Each Other". His belief in the idea of "survival of the fittest" and Social Darwinism led some wealthy Americans to refuse to help the poor.
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
Wrote Looking Backwards, critical of social Darwinism. It sold over a million copies in its first few years. It described a utopian society where all economic activity was carefully planned. He believed all citizens should share everything equally.
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.
prevailing idealogy of the 19th century assumptions of the wyay people behave, emphasizes self control, optimism, and sexual repression
Cult of Domesticity
The idea that women should restrict their activities to the home and raising children.
William Marcy Tweed
Nicknamed "Boss" Tweed, this boss of a political machine controlled a group called Tammany Hall, which ran NYC's Democratic Party. When they were elected and had access to the city's treasury, they stole millions through fake expenses, construction programs, and extra bills that meant nothing, but all the extra money would find its way to them.
belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens
Lead the Social Gospel Movement. Worked in NYC's Hell's Kitchen and wrote several books urging organized religions to take up the cause of social justice.
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Prominent social reformer who was responsible for creating the Hull House. She helped other women join the fight for reform, as well as influencing the creation of other Settlement Houses.
a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889.
jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support
During the presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881), a moderate Republican party faction led by Senator James Blaine that favored some reforms of the civil service system and a restrained policy toward the defeated South. They were half loyal to Grant and half committed to reform the spoils system
Republican in the 1870s who supported Ulysses Grant and Roscoe Conkling; they accepted machine politics and the spoils system and were challenged by other Republicans called Half-Breeds, who supported civil service reform.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
1891, formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them)
aka Patrons of Husbandry. organized in 1868 by Oliver h. Kelley as a social and educational organization for farmers and their families. organized economic ventures and took political action to defend members against the middlemen, trusts, and railroads.
Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
The early-twentieth-century school of artists supported progressive political and social reform. They turned to city streets, the slums, and the working class for subject matter.