Mastering Bio Practice 1-3

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One part of the cell theory states that all cells come from______.

Preexisting cells

In Pasteur's experiment, the purpose of the swan neck on the flask was to _____.

trap cells from the air before they reached the growth medium

Pasteur's results showed that _____

when growth medium is not contaminated by preexisting cells, the growth medium remains sterile

Louis Pasteur's experiment had a good design because _____.

the possible outcomes led to distinct, unambiguous conclusions

how much larger is the eukaryotic cell than the prokaryotic cell?

10 times longer

True or False:
A cell is not a characteristic of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

False. A cell is a characteristic of both.

Why did the five-kingdom system of classification fall out of favor?

It did not reflect the actual evolutionary relationships among organisms very well.

Current evolutionary data groups land plants with green algae and red algae. Brown algae, which you often find in the same habitat as red and green algae, is part of a distantly related group that includes the diatoms. This suggests that _____.

the term "algae" does not indicate a single taxon

What is the relationship between Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya?

These groups are descendants of a single common ancestor cell.

In comparison to eukaryotes, prokaryotes _____.

Are smaller and lack a nucleus

The best experimental design _____.

Includes a large number of replicates, a control, and alters only one condition between the controls and the experimental condition

How does a scientific theory differ from a scientific hypothesis?

A theory is an explanation for a very general phenomenon or observation; hypotheses treat more specific observations.

Which structures are homologous?
1) plant leaf and plant root
2) There are no homologous plant structures.
3) plant leaf and algal blade
4) oak leaf and maple leaf

4) Oak Leaf and Maple Leaf

What is the strong evidence that similar traits in different evolutionary lineages are the result of homology and not homoplasy?

The traits are also found in many intervening lineages on the tree of life.

Which of the following statements best describes the rationale for applying the principle of parsimony in constructing phylogenetic trees?

1) Parsimony differentiates between homologies and homoplasies.
2) Similarity due to common ancestry should be more common than similarity due to convergent evolution.
3) The molecular clock validates the principle of parsimony.
4) The outgroup roots the tree, allowing the principle of parsimony to be applied.
5) Parsimony allows the researcher to "root" the tree.

2) Similarity due to common ancestry should be more common than similarity due to convergent evolution.

Which of the following is an example of homoplasy?

1) cell walls in plants and fungi
2) fur in bears and seals
3) scales in snakes and lizards
4) chlorophyll in flowering plants and algae

1) Cell walls in plants and fungi.
-plant cell walls are made of cellulose and fungal cell walls are made of chitin.

Some beetles and flies have antler-like structures on their heads, much like male deer do. The existence of antlers in beetle, fly, and deer species with strong male-male competition is an example of _____.
1) parsimony
2) homology
3) analogy
4) a synapomorphy

Analogy

True or False:
Synapomorphies identify monophyletic groups.

True

Reptiles first appeared during the _____ era.

Paleozoic Era

We are living during the _____era

Cenozoic Era

Dinosaurs went extinct during the _____.

Mesozoic Era

_____ were the dominant vertebrate life form during the Paleozoic era.

Reptiles Era

Life arose during the _____.

Precambian Era

Flowering plants first appeared during the _____.

Mesozoic Era

The Mesozoic era began approximately _____ million years ago.

250 million years ago

The Precambrian time began at least _____ million years ago.

4,600 million years ago

Seed plants first appeared during the _____.

Paleozoic Era

The first prokaryotic cells appeared during the _____.

Precambrian Era

Animals first appeared during the _____

Precambrian Era

The Cenozoic era began approximately _____ million years ago.

65 Million years ago

_____ were the dominant vertebrate life form during the Mesozoic era.

Dinosaurs

Most modern animal phyla evolved during the _____ era.

Paleozoic Era

Bony fish first evolved during the _____ era.

Paleozoic Era

Which of the following organisms would be most likely to fossilize?
1) a rare squirrel
2) a common worm
3) a common squirrel
4) a rare worm

3) a common squirrel

Which listing of geological periods is in the correct order, from oldest to most recent?
1) Devonian, Cambrian, Permian, Cretaceous
2) Cambrian, Permian, Devonian, Cretaceous
3) Permian, Cambrian, Cretaceous, Devonian
4) Cambrian, Devonian, Permian, Cretaceous

4) Cambrian, Devonian, Permian, Cretaceous

What is a fossil?

A fossil is physical evidence of an organism that lived in the past.

Which of these scenarios proves that it is the Cenozoic Era?
1) many birds flying and roosting near the time machine
2) masses of green ferns with dragonflies hovering above them
3) a rabbit eating a daisy
4) a water lily floating in a pond
5) a bee pollinating a flower

3) a rabbit eating a daisy.

Which of the following statements about adaptive radiation is correct?
1) Adaptive radiation occurs in species that live in one habitat.
2) Adaptive radiation occurs very slowly over time.
3) Adaptive radiation occurs in the presence of competitors.
4) Adaptive radiation occurs within a single lineage.

Adaptive radiation occurs within a single lineage.

Which organisms are not examples of an adaptive radiation?
1) Anolis lizards of the Caribbean
2) Horses and deer in the post-dinosaur age
3) Honeycreeper songbirds of the Hawaiian islands
4) Mammals and reptiles in the post-dinosaur age

Mammals and reptiles in the post-dinosaur age

True or false? Convergent evolution is said to have occurred if the mouse species on two islands with similar habitats are found to have similar characteristics even though they originated from different species.

True

Which Anolis lizard ecomorph has long legs? and why?
1) Trunk/crown
2) Trunk/ground
3) Crown
4) Twig

Trunk/ground. These ecomorphs need long legs to jump from one broad perch to another.

Which of the following statements about the evolution of Anolis lizards in the Caribbean islands is true?
1) A crown ecomorph living on one island is always the same species as a crown ecomorph living on a neighboring island.
2) The genetic relatedness of ecomorphs was determined by comparing their nuclear DNA sequences.
3) The phylogeny of ecomorphs on a given island reveals that adaptive radiation has taken place.
4) Twig ecomorphs can jump very well.

The phylogeny of ecomorphs on a given island reveals that adaptive radiation has taken place.

What was the main selective pressure behind the evolution of different Anolis lizard species in the Caribbean?

Specific ecological niches

True or false? The evolution of different ecomorphs on the Caribbean islands is an example of stabilizing selection.

False: The evolution of different ecomorphs is an example of disruptive selection. Each new ecomorph had characteristics that were ideal for a particular habitat, but as these characteristics developed, the lizards lost the ability to survive effectively in the other habitats on the island.

Which likely trigger of the adaptive radiation known as the Cambrian explosion is the best example of ecological opportunity?
1) increased oxygen levels in the atmosphere
2) decreased oxygen levels in the atmosphere
3) increased numbers of Hox genes in animals
4) the evolution of land plants

1) Increased oxygen levels in the atmosphere.

The Permian period ends with a massive extinction event and then rapid speciation occurs as new animal and plant forms come into being. The most likely explanation for this is _____.
1) adaptive radiation.
2) lack of competition
3) morphological innovation
4) ecological opportunity
5) all but one of the above

5) all but one of the above.
-Morphological innovation is not nearly as likely as the other options after a mass extinction

Why would gene duplication events, such as those seen in the Hox gene complex, set the stage for adaptive radiation?

One copy of a gene can perform the original function while other copies are available to take on new functions.

Which is the definition of adaptive radiation?

An adaptive radiation occurs when a single lineage produces many ecologically diverse descendant species in a relatively short period of time.

Feathers either play a role, or may have played a role, in _____.
1) courtship
2) gliding
3) extended hops
4) flight
5) all of these

5) all of these

_____ is rapid speciation under conditions in which there is little competition.

Adaptive Radiation

Mass extinctions create conditions that promote _____.

adaptive radiation

The appearance of an evolutionary novelty promotes _____.

adaptive radiation

The different finch species found on the Galápagos Islands probably arose as a result of _____.

Adaptive Radiation

Why do mass extinctions wipe out species more or less randomly?

They are caused by exceptionally

Which is strong evidence supporting the impact hypothesis for the extinction of the dinosaurs?

extremely high quantities of iridium in rocks that formed around 65 million years ago

A hypothetical island lies far from any other landmasses. There are many different types of plants, but only one animal-a beetle that can fly or walk from plant to plant and feeds by chewing leaves. Given that the beetle is not exploiting all the resources on the island, which morphological change would be most likely to trigger an adaptive radiation of the beetles?
1) a mouthpart that can pierce fruits and seeds
2) a change in wing shape that improves flight speed
3) an additional segment on a pair of legs

1) a mouthpart that can pierce fruits and seeds

What evidence supports the impact hypothesis for the end-Cretaceous extinction?
1) Sedimentary rocks from the K-P boundary layer contain large amounts of iridium.
2) Most dinosaurs, with the exception of the birds, went extinct at this time.
3) The largest flood basalts on Earth, called the Siberian traps, occurred during the end-Cretaceous.
4) The Earth cooled considerably during the end-Cretaceous extinction.
Correct

1) Sedimentary rocks from the K-P boundary layer contain large amounts of iridium.

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