(fertile crescent) the first civilization, where it all began from scratch. 3500 B.C.E. Now Iran and Iraq.
Babylonian King. Successful ruler. Ruled from 1792-1750 B.C.E. Built an empire for his city. Encouraged literacy among the upper classes, made religious changes. Known for his creation of the worlds first written comprehensive law code, which he declared that they were sanctioned by the Gods. Established rules of procedure for courts of law and regulated property rights and the duties of family members, setting harsh punishments for crimes. His ideas are even seen today as pioneering.
"Most famous early code of law: to promote the welfare of the people, me Hammurabi, the devout, god-fearing prince, to cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and evil, that the strong night not oppress the weak."
(heavily armed foot soldier formation) Dominant military force in Mediterranean. Phalanx and polis heralded the decline of kings. Bond between aristocrats and farmers.
(Greek city-state) ex: the Vatican. root word for politics.
Cycle begins: internal wars. Unification, -also sign of "Mandate of Heaven". Time when peace and economic growth follows.
Cycle peak: public works, reforms (improvement or amendment from what is wrong), military expansion, invincible.
opulence (wealth, riches, or affluence) causes heavy taxes, wars. Vigor (active strength or force) of monarchs wane_ corruption enters and central control loosens. Collapse and cycle begins again.
early Roman government. Roman kings: imperium. Senate: advisors -wealthy-. Curiate assembly. Center of Roman life was the family. Patriarchal. Women's statuses were low, but better than China.
Two classes: Patricians- elite class of Rome
Plebeians- working class
Had a constitution: unwritten laws and customs.
Consuls-two patricians elected yearly. (two so that the power was divided, and one did not become too powerful).
Other officials: censor- supervised manners and morals.
aedile- oversees the public works
Centuriate assembly: elected new consuls, praetors, and censors, and voted on matters of war and peace. Citizens would vote on what they decided.
Punic Wars: Three wars between Rome and Carthage, from 264-146 B.C.E. period when Rome conquest spread more widely.
Held annual elections. Romans final act of destruction was to spread salt to prevent agriculture from surviving there.
warrior or noble- or governing class
peasant or tradesman
servant "suppression of the _______ and "outcasts"
subgroups of the casts. divisions represent occupational groups