The tendency to perceive an outcome that has occurred as being obvious and predictable is called the _______ _____. This phenomenon is ________ in _______ children and adults.
Hindsight bias, common, both
Because hindsight bias is _______ the fact, this tendency makes research findings seem like mere ______ ____.
after, common sense.
Our everyday thinking is also limited by ______ in what we think we know, which occurs because our _____ to seek information that confirms our judgments.
Most people are ___ ______ in predicting their social behavior.
The identification approach is characterized by the attitudes of _____, __, and _____.
curiosity, skepticism, and humility.
Scientific inquiry thus encourages reasoning that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions is called _____ ________.
Phsychologists use the _ ___ to guide their study of behavior and mental processes. The make ___ and form _____, which are ______ based on new ______________.
scientific method, observations, theories, revised, observations.
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behaviors or events is a ____.
Testable predictions that allow a scientist to evaluate a theory are called ________. These predictions give direction to ______.
In order to prevent theoretical biases from influencing scientific observations, research must be reported precisely - using clear ______ ___ or all concepts - so that others can _____ the findings.
operational definitions. replicate.
The test of a useful theory is the extent to which it effectively _______ observations and implies clear _____.
Psychologist conduct research using:
- Experiments methods
The research strategy in which one of more individuals is studied in depth in order to reveal universal principals of behavior is the ______ _____.
Although case studies can suggest ___ for further study, a potential problem with this method is that any given individual may be _.
The method in which a group of people is question about their attitudes or behavior is the ____.
An important factor in the validity of survey research is the _____ of questions.
The tendency to overestimate others' agreement with us is the _______ ________ effect.
Surveys try to obtain a random sample, one that will be representative of the ______ being studied. In such a sample, every person _ have a chance of being included.
Large representative samples ___ better than small ones.
We are more likely to overgeneralize from select samples that are especially ______.
The research method in which people or animals are directly observed in their natural environments is called _______ _______.
Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observaation do not explain behavior; they simply _______ it.
Using naturalistic observation, researchers have found that people are more likely to laugh in ______ situation than in ______ situations. Also, using observations of walking speed and the accuracy of public clocks, researchers have concluded that the pace of life ______ from one culture to another.
social, solitary, varies.
When changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another, the two factores are said to be ____, and one is thus able to ______ the other. The mathematical expression of this relationship is called a
correlated. predict. correlation coefficient
Graphs called ________ __ are often used to depict the relationship between two sets of scores.
If two factors increase or decrease together, they are ______ correlated. If, however, one decreases as the other increases, they are _____ correlated. Another way to state the latter is that the two variables relate ____.
positively, negatively, inversly
A negative correlation between two variables does not indicate the _____ or ___ of the relationship. Nor does correlation prove ____; rather, it merely indicates the possibility of a _____ - _______ relationship.
strength, weakness, causation, cause-effect
A correlation between two events or behaviors means only that one event can be _______ from the other.
Because 2 events may both be caused by some other __, a correlation does not mean that one __ the other. For this reason, correlation thus does not enable _____.
event, caused, explanation.
A perceived correlation that does not really exist is an ______ ________.
Peoples are more likely to notices recall events that _ their beliefs. This error in thinking helps explain many ___ beliefs.
Another common tendency is to perceive order in ____ _____.
Patterns and streaks in random sequences occur _____ often than people expect, and they ____ appear random.