Chapter 9 Rubenstein

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What Data does HDI use?

Economic, 2 social, demographic.

What Data does HDI use?

GDP, literacy rate, education, life expectancy.

What's the highest HDI a country can have?

1.00

which country has the greatest HDI?

Norway

Which country has the lowest HDI?

Sierra Leone

Where is the US in the HDI scale?

Usually top 10

What is a country's GDP per capita?

Total of G + S in one year/ population

GNP

money outside country plus money made in country.

GDP in MDC

20,000 +

GDP in LDC

- 1,000

In recent years the gap between MDC and LDC has?

widened

Why is GDP per capita not entirely indicative of development?

based on average wealth. not distribution. 1/5 of US population is poor.

Primary sector

come from the earth. agriculture, mining, fishing. lacks structural capacity for workers to change to other jobs. mother nature effects these jobs a lot.

Secondary sector

manufacturing. many of these jobs are being outsourced or offshored.

Tertiary sector

provide goods and services DIRECTLY TO PEOPLE. increasing in MDCs

Why is it important we don't have to grow our own food like in China and India?

we can work elsewhere.

what does it mean the US economy is "post industrial"?

past the industrial revolution.

what is the percentage breakdown of our labor force?

70% tertiary
23% secondary
7% primary

MDC's have more what to increase productivity and therefore need less labor?

capital goods

financing and what are key because they pay for machinery and other what?

investments, other technology

Where is Africa in much of the DTM?

Stage 2

Europeans left a what void in Africa?

leadership void

Availability of raw materials and energy resources indicates what?

potential, not actual development.

Not all developed countries have large amounts of what?

natural resources

Smaller ratios of goods to people in MDCs is good. what does this indicate?

wealth and generation of more wealth.

LDC's products are less essential. Why isn't the ratio very high?

more people are focused on survival.

What is a have-not?

people who don't have the goods

Why are have nots in LDCs denied access to these goods?

no communication to the outside world, corruption, censorship.

Where are the haves concentrated?

cities

Where does the excess GNP go?

schools, healthcare, social services.

What is the outcome of excess GNP going to schools, healthcare and social services?

higher social indicators of development in education.

how many years average are kids going to school?

MDC 10
LDC 2

what are the literacy rates of these MDCs and LDCs

MDC 95%
LDC < 30%

why do many MDCs spend less percent of their total GNP on education than LDCs do?

LDCs have less GNP to begin with, and they spend far less per pupil.

Males in MDCs can expect to live ____ years longer than males in LDCs.

9

females in MDCs can expect to live ____ years longer than females in LDCs.

13

Infant mortality rate

MDC 1 percent die the first year. US 6:1000
LDC 10 percent die the first year. Mali 119:1000

4 health indicators

1. person/ physician
2. hospital beds/ person US 1:365 Mali 1:18,000
3. calorie intake. >2300
4. public assistance. food stamps

"greatest health factor for a country can be literacy"

being able to read health information

MDcs have more retired workers with ___ and fewer children as % of the total population.

assets

LDC the dependency ratio is high because of younger/older ______ segments in society.

non-productive

where is the North South split?

30 degrees N

inverse relationship between NIR and doubling time.

1% MDC
2% LDC

inverse relationship CBR and DTM

CBR goes down ans DTM goes up

CDR not an indicator of development why?

better healthcare so there are more old people. CDR is higher because old people die faster

Why is mortality rate for woman in childbirth an indicator for development?

less women die when giving birth in an MDC

Anglo-American

US, CANADA. .94
MDC

W. Europe

.92
MDC

E. Europe

.78. difficult transition from socialism to free enterprise
MDC

Japan and South Pacific

.93
MDC

Latin America

.78
highest % of urbanization in primate cities
LDC

East Asia

.72
sustenance farmers and rising urbanization
LDC

Southeast Asia

.71
highly increasing urbanization
LDC

Middle East

.66
wealth isn't evenly spread
LDC

South Asia

.58
still largely agrarian
LDC

Sub-Saharan Africa

.47
agriculture is lagging. resources going to W. Europe. carrying capacity goes down due to climate. farmers have the ability but not the resources to succeed.

1/5 worlds population consumes _____ of the worlds goods.

5/6

UN has found no country where women are treated ____ than men

better

GDI- which country has the highest?
Which countries have the lowest?
what is the economic indicator?
what is the social indicator?
what is the demographic indicator?

norway
sub-saharan Africa
income
education and literacy
life expectancy

Female baby in an MDC lives on average 6 years longer than male in MDC. Why?

women take better care of themselves. also have jobs that don't involve danger. LDCs the gap is only a year or two

indicators for GEM. 2 indicators

1. the economic indicators are income and professional jobs
2. political indicators are managerial jobs and elected jobs

LDCs promote self-sufficiency

gov. regulates growth
spreading the wealth
pitfalls:
inefficiency and corruption
inflation

LDCs increase international trade

persian gulf asset- oil
Four dragons- S. Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong
Their greatest asset- labor force
pitfalls:
uneven resource distribution
market stagnation
increases dependence on MDCs

in spite of the pitfalls of increasing international trade, why is it the preferred approach?

forced trade agreements

what role has the WTO (world trade organization) played since 1995?

eliminates tariffs

How is development to be financed?

-loans from MDCs rich people, banks, microloans
-wealthy nations can cancel or refinance debt in exchange for structural adjustment programs
-transnational corporations can contribute financing but mostly goes from MDC to MDC

Rostow thinks:

development begins and takes off when an elite group of entrepreneurs initiate leadership and innovation. ex. Steve Jobs

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