filarial Nematode

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Inhabit lymphatics, subcutaneous or deep connective tissues as ADULTS

Filarial Nematodes

Adult female produces MICROFILARIAE (larva stage)

Filarial Nematodes

Infections acquired from bite of arthropod vector

Filarial Nematodes

Thread-like, highly motile

Microfilariae

Found in peripheral blood or tissues

Microfilariae

May be sheathed or unsheathed

Microfilariae

Contain body nuclei

Microfilariae

May exhibit periodicity in circulation

Microfilariae

Presumptive: Clinical evidence within an endemic area

Filarial Nematodes

Definitive: Detection of microfilariae in blood or tissues

Filarial Nematodes

Specimen stained with Giemsa or hematoxylin-based stain

Filarial Nematodes

Wuchereria bancrofti

Filarial Nematodes

Tropics & Subtropics

Wuchereria bancrofti

Microfilariae: Found in blood; nocturnal periodicity; sheathed, body nuclei do not extend to tip of tail

Wuchereria bancrofti

Elephantiasis - inflammation & obstruction of lymphatic system (involves extremities & external genitalia)

Wuchereria bancrofti

Microfiliariae: Found in blood; nocturnal periodicity; sheathed; two terminal nuclei at tip of tail (separate from rest of body nuclei)

Brugia malayi

Tropics & Subtropics

Brugia malayi

If elephantiasis is seen, usually in lower extremities only

Brugia malayi

Common name: African Eye Worm

Loa Loa

West & Central Africa

Loa Loa

Microfilariae: Found in blood; diurnal periodicity; sheathed; body nuclei continuous to tip of tail

Loa Loa

Calabar swellings - localized subcutaneous edema (on extremities

Loa Loa

Migration of adults usually not painful

Loa Loa

Seldom noticed unless worm passes over bridge of nose or through conjunctiva of eye

Loa

Central Africa, Saudi Arabia, Mexico & Brazil

Onchocerca volvulus

Microfilariae: Found in SKIN; nonperiodic; unsheathed; body nuclei do not extend to tip of tail

Onchocerca volvulus

Onchocercomas - subcutaneous nodules containing encapsulated adult

Onchocerca volvulus

Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) - ocular lesions leading to blindness

Onchocerca volvulus

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