Chapter 19 World History

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influenza pandemic

epidemic of the flu that occurred over a large geographic area and affected significant portion of the population; disease spread with terrifying speed; also known as "Spanish influenza"; well above 20 million people died

Gertrude Stein

hosted many writers who continued to live in Europe in her home; called the people who served in the war the lost generation

Lost Generation

the group of young people who served in the war; also refers to the writers like Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Passos; their novels reflected a generation that had lose its moral grounding during the war

Franz Kafka

Czech writer who used surrealism in this work; wrote The Castle; stories of struggle to find meaning

surrealism

a form of literature that brings conscious and unconscious ideas together to portray life in a dreamlike way; Franz Kafka

James Joyce

Irish writer who wrote Ulysses; revolutionary book that broke from traditional novel; used a technique called "stream of consciousness"; lacked normal punctuation and skips around

T.S. Eliot

American born poet who expressed the negative outlook of the postwar years; The Waste Land; described world without faith and where moral and spiritual values could not be restored

Igor Stravinsky

Russian-born composer who wrote the ballet The Rite of Spring; caused major uproar since broke completely with traditional music composition; twelve tone scale; unusual instruments

jazz

new form of music that originated among African American community in NOLA; fused West Africa and Latin American sounds with folk and European; Louis Armstrong

Pablo Picasso

artist in Paris who created cubism (with Braque)

cubism

style of art that emphasized geometric designs and showed objects from different viewpoints at the same time

Salvador Dali

Spanish surrealist painter who painted "the Persistence of Memory"; attempted to represent the unconscious and objects not relate to one another

dadaists

group of painters that used random images to reflect what they considered the insanity of the war

Pai-shih

Chinese artist who praised traditional Chinese art; last great painter of the older school of Chinese art

Louis Sullivan

American who pioneered new architecture style; helped develop the skyscraper; created new style called functionalism

functionalism

style created by Sullivan where buildings are designed for its specific use instead of style

Frank Lloyd Wright

student of Sullivan who adopted many of his ideas; believed buildings should fit into their environment

international style

new style of architecture that included uninterrupted sheets of steel and glass

flappers

women who wore shore hair and skirts; went out to public places like jazz clubs

Great Depression

collapse of the New York Stock Exchange; marked beginning of this time; prices and wages fell; unemployment rose; business activity slowed

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929; drop in stock prices that were artificially high; stock became worthless overnight; banks had no money; borrowers could not repay their loans to get money

Herbert Hoover

President who tried to revive American economy; efforts had little effect in face of massive economic collapse

Roosevelt

President in 1932; created New Deal and Social Security Act

New Deal

program of relief and reform created by the federal government; each state was given money to provide needy with clothing, food, and shelter; public works; FDR

Social Security Act of 1935

provided for unemployment and old age benefits; established 40 hour workweek and minimum wages; guaranteed workers the right to form unions; FDR

Maginot Line

a system where France rebuilt its army and constructed a series of steel and concrete fortifications nearly 200 miles along borders of Germany and Luxembourg; to prevent Germany from attacking France

Locarno Pacr

a number of treaties signed by European powers that pledged their countries would peacefully settle all future disputes and guaranteed existing boundaries between France and Germany; France signed mutual assistance treaties with Czech and Poland

general strike

when workers in various industries refused to work until their demands were met; happened in France

Popular Front

left-wing parties in France organized this government

Leon Blum

socialist leader of Popular Front who became premier of France in 1936

nationalization

when an item is place under government control; weapons in France underwent partial this

Ramsay McDonald

leader of the Labour Party who spoke out for workers; formed coalition government with Liberal Party

Easter Rising

a revolt of Irish Nationalists who wanted complete independence from GB

Sein Fein

an Irish nationalist party in 1981 who dominated the election for Irish seats in the British parliament

Irish Republican Army

Sinn Fein's military who battled British troops in a series of violent and bitter struggles; British received little support from Irish people

Benito Mussolini

man who became extreme nationalist; organized his own party Fascist Pary

facism

a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition; anti-democratic and anti-socialist

Black Shirts

Facists that conducted violent campaigns against their opponents; broke up strikes, intimidated voters, drove elected socialists officials from office; "purpose to defend Italy against a communist revolution"

corporatist state

state where representation was determined by area of economic activity

Nazi Party

National Socialist German Workers' Party; nationalistic, anti-Semitic, anti-communist; Adolf Hitler; elimination of all Jews and others that were "impure"

Third Reich

what Hitler called his rule; his empire

Rome-Berlin Axis

alliance between Hitler and Mussolini formed in 1936

New Economic Policy

Lenin's response to Russia's economic collapse and disorder; major industries under control; Nepmen arose

collective farms

where land was pooled into large farms on which people worked together as a group; peasants shared the scarce modern farm machinery

Leon Trotsky

man who fought with Stalin for power in Communism; exiled from Soviet Union; murdered on Stalin's orders; strict Marxist

command economy

economy in which government controlled all economic decisions

Five Year Plan

plan established by Soviet government with Stalin; double production of oil and coal; triple of steal; modern industrialized society; collective farming

Stalin

dictator who defeated Trotsky; ruled people by fear

Politburo

Political Bureau of the Communist Party; Supreme Soviet elected members; Stalin controlled this

purge

large scale elimination

Comintern

Communist International; way to get other established nations to accept communism; overthrew democracies by convincing workers in other countries to rebel

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