What kind of landform is the Italian peninsula?
Into what major sea does the Italian "boot" extend?
the Mediterranean Sea
What mountains form the northern border of the Italian peninsula?
What mountains form the "backbone" of Italy?
How were mountains both a help and a hindrance to ancient people of the Italian peninsula?
help: cities were built on the hills for defense; hindrance: they also made travel difficult
What river runs through the city of Rome?
the Tiber River
What were 4 ways the Etruscans contributed to Roman society?
they built temples and Rome's first sewer; they taught Romans their alphabet and numbers
What made the Italian environment good for farming?
a mild climate with warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
What was one key factor in Rome's early growth?
A plentiful food supply was one key factor in Rome's early growth.
After the overthrow of the king what group took over the power of government in Rome?
a group of nobles called the patricians
Who called for changes in how the government ran?
the common people called the plebeians
What did the Romans create to work out a compromise between patricians and plebeians?
a Republican form of government
How many branches did the Roman republic's government have?
three branches: magistrates (consuls); Senate (Senators); Assemblies and Tribunes
What was the oldest and most powerful branch and who controlled it?
The oldest branch of the government was the Senate, controlled by the patricians.
Over what areas of government did the Senate hold power?
The Senate advised consuls and ran financial affairs for the Republic.
What was the name of the group that represented the plebeians?
Who were the individuals who represented the plebeians?
What was the branch of government whose officials served one year and had lots of power?
What evidence tells you that consuls were powerful figures?
They had power over all citizens, including other officials.
How did keeping knowledge of the law away from the plebeians give the patricians greater power over them?
They could punish plebeians for breaking laws they did not know existed.
How did the plebeians get this situation changed?
They called for Rome's laws to be written down and accessible to everyone. They eventually were written on the Twelve Tables (in bronze!) and put in the Forum.
What was the Forum?
The Forum was Rome's public meeting place. It was the site of important government and religious buildings and lay in the center of Rome.
What happened to small farms and farmers as the Republic grew?
Many small farmers went to Rome. Patricians bought their property and ran large farms with slave labor.
Why were Rome's wars with Carthage called the Punic Wars?
Punic means Phoenician. The Phoenicians settled Carthage as a colony.
Who was Hannibal?
Hannibal was a great general who fought for Carthage in the Punic Wars. He almost defeated Rome, though in the end he and Carthage were defeated.
Why do you think Hannibal chose a land route?
He chose a land route because of the 80 war elephants with his army.
Who won the three wars fought between Rome and Carthage?
Rome won all three wars with Carthage.
How did serving in the army increase the plebeians' power in Rome?
Their support gave political power to their generals. Later, other ambitious politicians sought their armies' support.
What is a civil war?
A civil war is a war between citizens of the same country.
How many soldiers served in a legion?
How many soldiers served in a century?
How did the army's organization allow the Romans to defeat most enemies?
It was very flexible and could fight as a large group or as several small ones. This flexibility allowed the Romans to defeat most enemies.
What five ideas did the Romans adopt from the Greeks after conquering them?
Literature, art, philosophy, religion, and education
How did Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus try to help poor Romans? List at least 2 ways.
They wanted to create farms for poor citizens. They sold food cheaply to Rome's poor citizens.
Who was Spartacus and what did he do?
Spartacus was a slave and gladiator who led a slave revolt. He eventually lost.
What Roman leader tried to make the Senate the main ruling group in Rome?