Criminology Chapters 1-3

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Comprehensive

Because criminologists are influenced by many disciplines, the field of criminology is considered

Youth Crime

While self report studies can be used to examine the offense history of prison inmates and drug users, most self report studies have focused on

Valid & Reliable

Criminologists interested in computing criminal statistics focus on creating _ and _ measurements of criminal behavior

True

The mid 18th century belief stressing that the relationship between crime and punishment should be balanced and fair can be traced to Cesare Beccaria

True

Critical criminologists contend that society's economic system plays a significant role in producing criminal behavior

Consensus View

Which concept of crime implies that crimes are behaviors that all members of society consider to be repugnant?

Conflict View

Which view of crime sees society as a collection of diverse groups who are in a constant and continuing struggle to gain political power to advocate a situation?

Per 100,000 US Citizens

UCR expresses data as raw figures, crime rates, and changes in the number and rate over time. how are UCRs expressed?

Households

The NCVS anually samples 42,000 _ and 78,000 individuals age 12 or older in order to establish crime victimization

Victims Overreporting Crime

A validity concern associated with the NCVS involves

Decreased by 40%

How does today's violent crime rate compare to 1991?

True

The age structure of the population has a significant influence on crime trends

16

Crime peaks in adolescence and then declines. What's the peak age for property crime?

Persistence and desistance

Discovery of the chronic offender has forced criminologists to consider _ in their explanation of crime

The elderly

Some victims, especially _ develop a persistent fear that they will be re-victimized

True

Until 40 years ago, victims were viewed as passive targets considered to be in the wrong place at the wrong time

50% Lower

People living in rural areas have a victimization rate almost _ than that in urban

Victim Precipitation Theory

Which victimization theory claims that victims may initiate the confrontation that leads to their victimization?

Impulsivity

Research indicates a strong association between victims and which characteristic?

Crisis Intervention

_ programs assist victims who feel isolated and vulnerable and in need of emergency services

True

Reconciliation programs are based on the concept of restorative justice

Criminology

An academic discipline that uses the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behavior

Interdisciplinary

Involving two or more academic fields

Criminal Justice

System made up of the agencies of social control, such as police departments, the courts, and correctional institutions, that handle criminal offenders

Criminological Enterprise

The various subareas included within the scholarly discipline of criminology, which, taken as a whole, define the field of study. Includes criminal statistics, sociology of law, developing theories of crime causation, penology, and victimology

Valid Measure

A measure that actually measures what it purports to measure; a measure that is factual

Reliable Measure

A measure that produces consistent results from one measurement to another

False

Sex offender registration lists help deter potential offenders and reduce the incidence of child molestation

Psychological Orientation View

Crime is a function of personality, development, social learning or cognition

Biological Orientation View

Antisocial behavior as a function of biochemical, genetic and neurological factors, INTERNAL FORCES

Sociological Orientation View

Criminal behavior is a product of social forces including neighborhood conditions, poverty, socialization and group interaction

True

Domestic violence is abnormal. Wife abusers must have abnormal brains

White Collar Crime

Illegal acts that capitalize on a person's status in the marketplace. White collar crimes may include theft, embezzlement, fraud, market manipulation, restraint of trade, and false advertising

Criminal Statistics

Gathering valid crime data. Devising new research methods; measuring crime patterns and trends.

Sociology of law

Determining the origin of law. Measuring the forces that can change laws and society

Theory Construction

Predicting individual behavior. Understanding the cause of crime rates and trends.

Criminal Behavior Systems

Determining the nature and cause of specific crime patterns. Studying violence, theft, organized crime, white collar crime and public order crimes

Penology

Punishment, sanctions and corrections; studying the correction and control of criminal behavior

Victimology

Studying the nature and cause of victimization

False

Terrorists are disturbed, angry people, many of whom are psychopaths

Rehabilitation

Treatment of criminal offenders that is aimed at preventing future criminal behavior

Capital Punishment

The execution of criminal offenders; the death penalty

Mandatory Sentences

A statutory requirement that a certain penalty shall be carried out in all cases of conviction for a specified offense or series of offenses

Middle Ages

People who violated social norms or religious practices were believed to be witches or possessed by demons, cruel torture, harsh penalties

Classical Criminology

One of the origins of criminology, theoretical perspective suggesting that people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behaviors, people choose to commit crime for reasons of greed or personal need, and crime can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions, SITUATIONAL FORCES

Utilitarianism

The view that people's behavior is motivated by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain

Cesare Beccaria

Italian 1738-1794, developed utilitarianism, said to deter crime punishment must be sufficient, and for it to be effective it must be public swift certain and proportionate

Positivism

The branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggests that human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological or economic forces, shift from utilitarianism to brain functioning and personality

Scientific Method

The use of verifiable principles and procedures for the systematic acquisition of knowledge. Typically, involves formulating a problem, creating hypotheses, collecting data through observation and experiment to verify the hypothesis

Cesare Lombroso

The father of criminology (1835-1909) developed the idea of biological determinism, that criminals differed anatomically from noncriminals

Auguste Comte

(1798-1857) Founder of sociology, believed societies passed through stages, positivist stage: when people embrace a rational, scientific view of the world

Physiognomist

JK Lavater, studied facial features of criminals

Phrenologist

Franz Joseph Gall & Johann K Spurzheim, studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head

Biosocial Theory

Approach to criminology that focuses on the interaction between biological and social factors as they are related to crime

Sociological Criminology

Approach to criminology, based on the work of Quetelet and Durkheim, that focuses on the relationship between social factors and crime

Anomie

A lack of norms or clear social standards, because of rapidly shifting moral values, the individual has few guides to what is socially acceptable

Chicago School

Group of urban sociologists who studied the relationship between environmental conditions and crime, said crime could be eradicated if social/economic conditions improved

Socialization

Process of human development and enculturation. Socialization is influenced by key social processes and institutions

Conflict Theory

The view that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own ends (Marx), ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL FORCES

Critical Criminology

The view that crime is a product of the capitalist system (Marx)

Karl Marx

Communist Manifesto (oppressive labor conditions), economic system controls all, explotation of working class, conflict theory & critical criminology

Developmental Theory

Gluecks, the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics, MULTIPLE FORCES

Rational Choice Theory

The view that crime is a function of a decision making process in which the would be offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act, Contemporary Criminology

Trait Theory

The view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits, Contemporary Criminology

Social Structure Theory

The view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime, Contemporary Criminology, ECOLOGICAL FORCES

Social Process Theory

The view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organizations, institutions and processes in society, Contemporary Criminology, SOCIALIZATION FORCES

Deviance

Behavior that departs from the social norm but is not necessarily criminal

Critical Criminologists

Members of a branch of criminology that focuses on the oppression of the poor, women, and minorities, thereby linking class conflict, sexism and racism to crime rates. They examine how those who hold political and economic power shape the law to uphold their self-interests

Crime

An act, deemed socially harmful or dangerous, that is specifically defined, prohibited and punished under the criminal law

Decriminalized

Having criminal penalties reduced rather than eliminated

Consensus View

The belief that the majority of citizens in a society share common values and agree on what behaviors should be defined as criminal

Criminal Law

The written code that defines crimes and their punishments

Conflict View

The belief that criminal behavior is defined by those in power in such a way as to protect and advance their own self-interest

Interactionist View

The belief that those with social power are able to impose their values on society as a whole, and these values then define criminal behavior

Code of Hammurabi

The first written criminal code, developed in Babylonia about 2000BC

Mosaic Code

The laws of the ancient Israelites, found in the Old Testament of the Judeo-Christian Bible

Precedent

A rule derived from previous judicial decisions and applied to future cases; the basis of common law

Common Law

Early English law, developed by judges, which became the standardized law of the land in England and eventually formed the basis of the criminal law in the United States

Statutory Crimes

Crimes defined by legislative bodies in response to changing social conditions, public opinion, and custom

Felony

A serious offense that carries a penalty of imprisonment, usually for one year or more, and may entail loss of political rights

Misdemeanor

A minor crime usually punished by a short jail term and/or a fine

Social Goals for Contemporary Criminal Law

Retribution, Punishment, Equity, Express Morality, Maintain Social Order, Social Control, Deterrence

Appellate Court

Court that reviews trial court procedures to determine whether they have complied with accepted rules and constitutional doctrines

Uniform Crime Report

Large database, compiled by the FBI, of crimes reported and arrests made each year throughout the United States, measures homicides and arrests and that it is consistent, omits crimes not reported and drug usage, and can have reporting errors

Part I Crimes

The eight most serious offenses included in the UCR: murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, arson, larceny and motor vehicle theft

Part II Crimes

All other crimes, aside from the eight Part I crimes, included in the UCR arrest data. Part II crimes include drug offenses, sex crimes and vandalism, among others

Cleared Crimes

Crimes are considered cleared when at least one person is arrested, charged, and turned over to the court for prosecution or when some element beyond police control precludes the physical arrest of an offender

False

The official crime data is extremely accurate and can give us a valid picture of the nature, extent and trends in crime

National Incident-Based Reporting System

Program that requires local police agencies to provide a brief account of each incident and arrest within 22 crime patterns, including incident, victim and offender information

Sampling

Selecting a limited number of people for study as representative of a larger group

Population

All people who share a particular characteristic, such as all high school students or all police officers

National Crime Victimization Survey

The ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the Justice Department and the US Census Bureau that surveys victims about their experiences with law violation, includes crimes not reported, uses careful sampling techniques and is yearly, relies on victim memory and honesty and omits substance abuse

Self-report Survey

A research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts, include nonreported crimes, substance abuse and personal information, relies on honesty of offenders and omits offenders who refuse or are unable (incarcerated)

False

Most kids do not commit crime; a few hardcore delinquents are responsible for most criminal activity

False

Crime is out of control and is more dangerous now in the United States than at any time in history

Crime Patterns

Summer months (except murders/robberies in December & January), crime rises with temperature, large urban areas, western & southern states, poverty, youth, men

False

Immigrants who are in the US illegally commit a lot crime

True

The Old West is still pretty wild, having higher crime rates than the east

Instrumental Crimes

Offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal

Expressive Crimes

Offenses committed not for profit or gain but to vent rage, anger or frustration

Aging Out

Phrase used to express the fact that people commit less crime as they mature

Neurotransmitter

A chemical substance, such as dopamine, that transmits nerve impulses from one neuron to another

Masculinity Hypothesis

The view that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men

Liberal Feminist Theory

A view of crime that suggests that the social and economic role of women in society controls their crime rates

Racial Threat Theory

As the size of the black population increases, the perceived threat to the white population increases, resulting in a greater amount of social control imposed on blacks

Chronic Offenders

Career criminals, the small group of persistent offenders who account for a majority of all criminal offenses

Early Onset

The view that repeat offenders begin their criminal careers at a very young age

Three Strikes

Laws that require offenders to serve life in prison after they are convicted of a third felony

Victimology

The study of the victim's role in criminal events

Victimologists

Criminologists who focus on the victims of crime

True

The cost of victimization to American society is in the hundreds of billions dollars each year

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Psychological reaction to a highly stressful event; symptoms may include depression, anxiety, flashbacks and recurring nightmares

False

Victims are passive people who would never get involved in themselves

Cycle of Violence

Victims of crime, especially victims of childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crimes themselves

Location of Victimization

Violent crime in open area daytime or early evening, serious violent crimes after 6pm, less during the daytime, central city areas, in schools, african american western urban homes, renters

Victim Characteristics

African American, never married, young, women- rape (nonstranger), men-robbery (stranger)

Repeat Victimization

Some people magnets, Vulnerable, Gratifiable, or Antagonistic are three reasons

Victim Precipitation Theory

The view that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization

Active Precipitation

Aggressive or provocative behavior of victims that results in their victimization

Passive Precipitation

Personal or social characteristics of victims that make them attractive targets for criminals; such victims may unknowingly either threaten or encourage their attackers

Lifestyle Theories

Views on how people become crime victims because of lifestyles that increase their exposure to criminal offenders (high risk, college, criminal)

False

Most crime victims are people who are simply in the wrong place at the wrong time

Deviant Place Theory

The view that victimization is primarily a function of where people live

Routine Activities Theory

The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders

Suitable Targets

Objects of crime (persons or property) that are attractive and readily available

Capable Guardians

Effective deterrents to crime, such as police or watchful neighbors

Motivated Offenders

People willing and able to commit crimes

Routine Activities & Lifestyle Concepts

Proximity to criminals, time of exposure to criminals, target attractiveness, guardianship

Routine Activities & Lifestyle Predictions

Live in high crime areas, Go our late at night, Carry valuables, Engage in risky behavior, Are without friends or family to watch/help them

Task Force on Victims of Crime 1982

Balance between recognizing victim's rights and defendant's due process rights

Omnibus Victim and Witness Protection Act

Victim impact statements, greater protection for witnesses, more stringent bail laws, use of restitution (notification of whereabouts) in criminal cases

Comprehensive Crime Control Act/Victims of Crime Act

Federal funding for compensation and assistance projects

Victim-witness Assistance Programs

Government programs that help crime victims and witnesses; may include compensation, court services, or crisis intervention

Compensation

Financial aid awarded to crime victims to repay them for their loss and injuries; may cover medical bills, loss of wages, loss of future earnings, or counseling

Crisis Intervention

Emergency counseling for crime victims

Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs

Mediated face-to-face encounters between victims and their attackers, designed to produce restitution agreements and, if possible reconciliation

Victims' Bill of Rights

Notified of proceedings of case and status of defendant, present at proceedings, statement at sentencing, consulted before dismissed/plea agreement, speedy trial, be kept confidential

False

Criminals are given too many rights, while their victims have few legal protections

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