Ch. 19 Immigration, Urbanization, and Everyday Life (1860-1900)

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Scott Joplin

young black composer and pianist
-king of ragtime

How did the influx of immigrants before 1900 create an awareness of ethnic and class differences?

competition for occupations
overpopulation
sudden influx in different ethnic backgrounds
grouped together- followed customs

By 1900, ____, ____, and ____ all had more than a million residents, and ____% of all Americans lived in cities.

Philadelphia
New York
Chicago
40

new immigrants

1890s
Italians, Slavs, Greeks, and Jews
Armenians, Japanese

Ellis Island

1892
facility for admitting immigrants outside of New York
Castle Garden

W.E.B. Du Bois

black sociologist
The Philadelphia Negro (1899) - wealthy black entrepreneurs within tennement neighborhoods built their own churches, ran successful businesses, and established charitable organizations to help their people

How did Victorian morality shape middle-class society and culture?

-human nature = malleable, people can improve selves
-hard work developed personal self-discipline and also fostered national progress
-good manners and "culture" in the form of literature and the fine arts were hallmark of a truly civilized society
-behavior and income define social standing

Victorian morality

a set of social ideas influential among the priviledged classes of England and the United States during the reign (1837-1901) of Britain's Queen Victoria
-argued that the success of the middle and upper classes rested on their superior talent, intelligence, morality, an self-control
-women are driving force for moral improvement

How did the Victorian code heighten class differences and create visible distinictions among social groups?

emphasis on morals, manners, and behavior
-usually self-righteous, intensely moralistic outlook

"the woman's sphere"

1840s onward, the home idealized as "the woman's sphere" a protected retreat where she could express special maternal gifts, including a sensitivity toward children and an aptitude for religion
-foster artistic enviroment that would nurture family's cultural improvement

department store

urban institution that transformed teh shipping experience for their middle- and upper-class patrons
-make shopping exciting activity
-workplace for lower class and social club for upper class

wealth and education

education comes as a sign of upper class
industrialists and businessmen dominate boards of trustees of many educational institutions, and colleges were viewed as a training ground for future business and professional leaders
-athletic field = affluent young men for business and professions

football

elite sport played by college teams
social darwinism - ideal arena for improving strength, courage, and self-discipline o fyouth
-surrogae frontier experience in increasingly urban society

Higher education

flourished
new co-educational policies allowed women to acquire college education as never before
research university emerged

research university

offered courses in a wide variety of subjects, established professional schools, and encouraged faculty members to pursue basic research

How did political machines and social and religious reformers address urban poverty?

-donations
-YMCA/YWCA
-Salvation Army
-NY Society of Suppresion of Vice
-City Vigilance League
-Social Gospel
-Settlement-Houses

"boss"

urban political leader, headed the machine, often corrupt
-neighborhood level - generous

political machine

unofficial political organizaion designed to keep a particular party or faction in office
-controlled patronage, manipulated immigrants

William "Magear" Tweed

Tammany Hall machine
1869-1871
dispensed 60,000 patronage positions and pumped up city's debt by $70 million through graft and inflated contracts

Thomas Nast

details of Tweed ring satirized in Harper's Weekly

Salvation Army

religious groupestablished to help the poor
est. by Methodist minister "General" William Booth in England
-attract the poor with marching bands and lively preaching; follow up with offers of food, assistance, and employment; teach about solid, middle-class virtues of temperance, hard work, and self-discipline

New York's Charity Organizaton Society

Josephine Shaw Lowell
"friendly visitors" into tenements to counsel families on hwo to improve their lives; convinced that moral deficiencies lay at root of poverty, and that the "promiscuous charity" of overlapping welfare agencies undermined the desire to work, so tried to foster self-sufficiency in its charges
-accused of seeking more to control than help

Anthony Comstock

1872
founded New York Society for Supression of Vice
demanded municipal authorities close down gambling and lottery operations and censor obscene publications

City Vigilance League

1892
Charles Parkhurst
clean up prostitution, gambling dens, and saloons
-blamed Tammany Hall and New York City police

institutional church movement

William S. Rainsford
large downtown churches in once-elite districs now overrun by immigrants provided their new neighbors with social servies as well as a place to worship

Social Gospel

1870s
Washington Gladden
true Christianity commits men and women to fight social injustice
Walter Rauschenbusch
educated in Germany, argued that a truly Christian society would unite all churches, reorganize the industrial system, and work for international peace

Jane Addams

settlement house relief workers moved into neighborhoods, where they could see firsthand the issues
-Hull House -social center for recent immigrants
-plays, held classes in English, civics, cooking, dressmaking, encouraged to preserve traditional crafts; kindergarten, laundry, employment bureau, day nursery for working mothers
-studies of city housing conditions and pressured politicans to enforce sanitation regulations

How did the urban working class change attitudes toward leisure and recreation by 1900?

more open - esp. working class
-streets
-saloons
-baseball
-vaudeville
-amusement parks
-dance halls
-ragtime

John L. Sullivan

began boxing in 1877 at age 19
beat many local strongment, but refused to fight blacks - kept from fighting finest boxer, Peter Jackson

VAudeville

offered a succession of acts designed for mass appeal
opened with animal act or dance number, followed by musical interlude

The middle class preferred ____ music while the working class preferred _____.

hymns, songs w/ moral message
ragtime

How did writers, artists, adn educational reformers address issues of cultural conflict?

newspapers
-literature: step away from traditional "elite" literature
-less ornate
-step away from Victorian morals

codefied standards of writing and design

Charles Eliot Norton and E.L. Godkin
"improve" American taste in interior furnishings, texties, ceramics, wallpaper, books

Mark Twain

spoke for many young writers when he said that he was through with "literature and al that bosh"
-broaden literary appeal to general public

different tyes of "common" writers

regionalists - captured distinctive dialects adn details of featured locale
-truthful (optomistic) depiction of hte commonplace
naturalists - stressed economic na dpsychological determinants and often examined the dark underside of life

modernism

trend in early 20th-century thought an daesthetics that rejected Victorian formalism in favor of new modes of experience and expression

Frank Lloyd Wright

architect who rejected Victorian fussiness

Frances Willard

by nature, women were compassionate, nurturing, and sensitive to others; drinking ecnouraged men to squander earnings and profoundly threatened family life
-Woman's Christian Temperance Union
-domestication of politics
first mass organization of women

Kate Chopin

the married heroine of The Awakenign(1899) violated social conventions by falling in love with another man and taking her life when his ideas about women proved as narrow and traditional as those of her own husband

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