Levels of Structural Organization
Responsiveness or Irritability
8 Necessary Life Functions
body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal environments in the face of change.
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.
the study of body structures you can see with your naked eye.
human body is erect, with hand and toes pointed forward and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs.
the anterior surface of the elbow.
the neck region.
the roundness of the shoulder.
the fingers or toes.
the side of the leg.
the bony eye socket (orbit).
the anterior knee (kneecap) region.
the pelvis region.
the genital region.
the region of the breastbone.
the buttocks or rump.
the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin.
the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull.
the back of the knee.
the area between the hips.
the scapula or shoulder blade area.
the calf or posterior surface of the leg.
the area of the spinal column.
above other structures.
below other body parts.
in front of.
behind or toward the back.
toward the midline.
away from the midline.
toward the head; also superior for humans, anterior for four-legged animals.
toward the tail; also inferior for humans, posterior for four-legged animals.
belly side; also anterior for humans, superior for four-legged animals.
backside; posterior for humans, inferior for four-legged animals.
toward the point of attachment.
away from the point of attachment.
toward or at the body surface.
away from the body surface; more internal.
plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
plane that divides the body into equal right and left parts.
plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
plane that divides the body into superior and anterior parts.
#1; a dorsal body cavity that houses the brain.
#2, a dorsal body cavity that is surrounded by the vertebral column to protect the spinal cord.
#4; a ventral body cavity seperated from the rest by the muscular diaphragm(#5). The bony rib cage protects the heart and lungs.
#8; a ventral body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity(#6) that houses the stomach, intestines, liver and other organs; and pelvic cavity(#7) that contains the reproductive organs, bladder and rectum.
the structural and functional unit of all living things.
#1; the control center of the cell (houses it's DNA) and is necessary for cell reproduction.
#15; genetic material (DNA) in threadlike form.
#16; assembly sites for ribosomes; the actual protein-synthesizing "factories."
Nuclear Envelope/Nuclear Membrane
#2; the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the rest of the cytoplasm.
large openings in the nuclear envelope that allow for communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm permitting large molecules like protein and RNA molecules to pass easily.
#3; the outer boundary of the cell that controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell; composed of a phospholipid bi-layer with proteins embedded in it.
#12; particles composed of RNA and protein that are involved with messenger RNA in the synthesis of proteins.
flattened sacs and tubes that may be continuous with the nuclear membrane.
#5; ER that is studded with ribosomes and is involved in protein synthesis.
#14; ER that is involved in steroid and lipid synthesis.
#4; membranous system involved in packaging protein molecules for export from the cell, packaging enzymes to lysosomes and processing proteins destined to become part of plasma membrane.
#11; membrane-bound vesicles that originate from the Golgi and contain strong digestive enzymes; if ruptured, they have the capacity to totally destroy the cell.
#6; small lysosome-like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxifies alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals.
#7; rod-shaped bodies with a double membrane wall; the site of aerobic respiration that uses oxygen to produce ATP; powerplant of the cell.
#10; paired structures oriented at right angles to each other; composed of microtubules and is involved in the formation of mitotic spindle.
all the materal and organelles inside the plasma membrane and outside of the nucleus.
cell life cycle in which the cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities.
cell life cycle in which the cell reproduces itself; two events: Mitosis and Cytokinesis.
division of the nucleus to increase the number of cells for growth and repair.
division of the cytoplasm.
- tissues that cover surfaces;
- functions: protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sometimes sensory reception.
- cells fit closely together to form membranes or sheet of cells;
- membranes always have one exposed surface=apical surface.
- cells are attached to and supported by basement membrane.
- have no blood supply of their own.
Simple Squamous Epi
Location: lining the kidney glomeruli, kidney tubules, blood vessels and heart, and alveoli and lungs.
Function: diffusion, secretion, filtration
Simple Cuboidal Epi
Location: lining the kidney tubules, glands, and surface of ovary.
Function: secretion and absorption.
Simple Columnar Epi
Location: lining the digestive tract (cont. goblet cells), gallbladder, and ducts of glands.
Function: secretion and absorption.
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epi
always have goblet cells;
Location: lining the trachea, bronchi, and nasal cavity
Function: propel mucus
Simple Ciliated Columnar Epi
Location: lining the uterine tubes, superior portion of uterus, and male reproductive.
Function: propel mucus
Stratified Squamous Epi
1. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epi - contains keratin, a waterproofing protein. (waves)
Location: lining the skin
2. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epi
Location: lining the lips, cheeks, eyes and vagina
Both functions as a protection.
Location: lining the urinary bladder, and ureter
Connective Tissue (CT)
- most abundant;
- functions: protect, support, and bind together other tissues of the body.
- made up of many different types of cells and nonliving substances found outside the cells (extracellular matrix).
- highly vascularized, or have a good blood supply. (exception for the ligaments and tendons)
elastic, reticular, collagen fibers; fibroblast.
Location: underskin, surrounding organs and capillaries.
Function: wrap and protect
adipocytes (fat cell)
Location: underskin, surrounding kidneys, and behind the eyes.
Function: insulation, protection and energy storage.
Dense Regular CT
collagen fibers; fibroblast
Location: tendons, ligaments and aponeuroses.
Function: tensile strength in one direction
Dense Irregular CT
collagen fibers; elastic fibers.
Location: dermis of the skin, fibrous joints capsules, and submucosal layer.
Function: tensile strength in multiple direction.
lacuna; cells=chrondocyte; matrix.
Location: fetal skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilage, tip of nose, trachea and larynx.
Function: support, reinforce and cushion.
like the hyaline but with elastic fibers.
Location: outer ear epiglottis
Function: flex and bend; maintain shape.
Function: support, protection, and mineral storage.
- forms the external body covering;
- skin and derivatives: sweat & oil glands, hair, nails;
- protects deeper tissue from injury;
- synthesizes vitamin D;
- superficial region of the skin;
- composed of keratinized stratified squamous Epi.
cells that produce keratin.
- deep region of the skin;
- mostly made up of dense fibrous CT;
- fairly tear resistant
- deep to the dermis;
- essentially Adipose tissue;
- not considered part of the skin but anchors it to underlying organs and provides a site for nutrient storage.
Stratum Basale (basal layer)
- deepest layer of the epidermis;
- highly mitotic (skin cells are formed);
- contains melanocytes;
- cells that produce melanin;
- shields nuclei from UV damage;
Stratum Spinosum (spinal layer)
- cells contain thick layer of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin;
- cell division also occurs in this layer but less often than basal layer.
Stratum Granulosum (granular layer)
- layer of the epidermis where cells are beginning to die;
- abundant granules in its cells b/c cells start to fill with keratin;
Stratum Lucidum (clear layer)
layer of the epidermis that is only present in thick skin (palms & soles).
Stratum Corneum (horny layer)
- outermost layer of the epidermis;
- can be many layers thick;
- cells in this layer are dead;
- flattened scalelike remnants of cells are full of keratin.
- upper dermal region;
- contains fingerlike projections called dermal papillae, meissner's corpuscles (pain and touch receptors), and free nerve endings.
- deepest skin layer;
- contains blood vessels, sweat and sebaceous glands, and pacinian corpuscles (pressure receptors).
#3; peg-like projections on the superior surface that indent the overlying epidermis
#5; the visible part of the hair
#6; The part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the scalp.
#7; narrow cavities in the dermis from which hair grows
Arrector Pili Muscle
- Tiny smooth involuntary muscle attached to hair follicle and dermal papillae;
- contracts when cold or frightened and produces goosebumps
#10; Oil-secreting gland in the dermis that is associated with hair follicles.
#11; Sweat-secreting gland
#15; deep pressure receptor located within or near the hypodermis