|Anatomy||the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationship to one another.|
|Physiology||the study of how the body and its parts work or function.|
|Levels of Structural Organization|
| Inorganic Compounds|
|2 major classes of molecules.|
|Water|| - most abundant inorganic compound (50-70% of body mass);|
- special properties: polarity/solvency (ability to dissolve matter) and high heat capacity (absorbs or releases lots of heat without changing temperature).
|Organic Compounds|| - carbon-containing molecules;|
- found only in the living
- Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
|Carbohydrates|| - organic compound;|
- sugars and starches;
- contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
- energy source
- a structural component of DNA
|Monosaccharide|| - simple sugars;|
- glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose.
|Glucose|| - blood sugar; universal cellular fuel;|
- converted into our energy.
|Disaccharide|| - double sugars;|
- sucrose (glucose+fructose), lactose (glucose+galactose), maltose (glucose+glucose).
|Polysaccharides|| - many sugars;|
- most important in the body: starch and glycogen
|Starch||energy storage formed in plants.|
|Glycogen|| - energy storage formed in animals:|
- stored in liver cells, muscle cells and uterine cells.
|Lipids|| - organic compound;|
- contains C,H,O but C&H>O
- most are nonpolar: electrically balanced and insoluble in water
- types: phospholipids, steroids, triglycerides
|Phospholipids|| - found in cell membranes|
- head: phosphate (PO4) is polar
- tail: fatty acid chain is nonpolar
|Steroids|| - nonpolar ring structure|
- parent/precursor: cholesterol
|Triglycerides|| - neutral fats|
- major source of stored energy in the body
- stored in adipocytes (under skin or around organs)
- provides insulation and cushion
|Proteins|| - organic compound;|
- composed of amino acids (aa): basic building blocks;
- usually large and polar;
- contains C,H,O,N
|Nucleic Acids|| - organic compound;|
- largest molecule in the body
- make up the genes that provides that basic blueprint of life;
- major kinds: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) & ribonucleic acid (RNA).
- genetic material found in the nucleus;
- contains instructions for protein synthesis;
- passes hereditary info to descendant cells.
|RNA|| - relay instructions from DNA to ribosomes for sequencing of aa into proteins.|
- resides mostly outside the nucleus.
|Messenger RNA (mRNA)||RNA that carries the recipe from the nucleus to the ribosome.|
|Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)||RNA that makes up part of the ribosome.|
|Transfer RNA (tRNA)||RNA that brings the aa to the ribosome for assemble in the cytoplasm.|
| Maintaining Boundary|
Responsiveness or Irritability
|8 Necessary Life Functions|
body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal environments in the face of change.
|Negative Feedback||A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.|
|Gross Anatomy||the study of body structures you can see with your naked eye.|
|Anatomical Position|| |
human body is erect, with hand and toes pointed forward and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
|Abdominal||the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs.|
|Antecubital||the anterior surface of the elbow.|
|Cervical||the neck region.|
|Deltoid||the roundness of the shoulder.|
|Digital||the fingers or toes.|
|Fibular||the side of the leg.|
|Orbital||the bony eye socket (orbit).|
|Patellar||the anterior knee (kneecap) region.|
|Pelvic||the pelvis region.|
|Pubic||the genital region.|
|Sternal||the region of the breastbone.|
|Gluteal||the buttocks or rump.|
|Lumbar||the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin.|
|Occipital||the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull.|
|Popliteal||the back of the knee.|
|Sacral||the area between the hips.|
|Scapular||the scapula or shoulder blade area.|
|Sural||the calf or posterior surface of the leg.|
|Vertebral||the area of the spinal column.|
above other structures.
below other body parts.
in front of.
behind or toward the back.
toward the midline.
away from the midline.
|Cephalad||toward the head; also superior for humans, anterior for four-legged animals.|
|Caudad (caudal)||toward the tail; also inferior for humans, posterior for four-legged animals.|
|Ventral||belly side; also anterior for humans, superior for four-legged animals.|
|Dorsal||backside; posterior for humans, inferior for four-legged animals.|
toward the point of attachment.
away from the point of attachment.
toward or at the body surface.
away from the body surface; more internal.
|Sagittal Plane|| |
plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
|Median/Midsagittal Plane|| |
plane that divides the body into equal right and left parts.
|Coronal/Frontal Plane|| |
plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
|Transverse Plane|| |
plane that divides the body into superior and anterior parts.
|Cranial Cavity|| |
#1; a dorsal body cavity that houses the brain.
|Spinal Cavity|| |
#2, a dorsal body cavity that is surrounded by the vertebral column to protect the spinal cord.
|Thoracic Cavity|| |
#4; a ventral body cavity seperated from the rest by the muscular diaphragm(#5). The bony rib cage protects the heart and lungs.
|Abdominopelvic Cavity|| |
#8; a ventral body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity(#6) that houses the stomach, intestines, liver and other organs; and pelvic cavity(#7) that contains the reproductive organs, bladder and rectum.
the structural and functional unit of all living things.
#1; the control center of the cell (houses it's DNA) and is necessary for cell reproduction.
#15; genetic material (DNA) in threadlike form.
#16; assembly sites for ribosomes; the actual protein-synthesizing "factories."
|Nuclear Envelope/Nuclear Membrane|| |
#2; the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the rest of the cytoplasm.
|Nuclear Pores||large openings in the nuclear envelope that allow for communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm permitting large molecules like protein and RNA molecules to pass easily.|
|Plasma Membrane|| |
#3; the outer boundary of the cell that controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell; composed of a phospholipid bi-layer with proteins embedded in it.
#12; particles composed of RNA and protein that are involved with messenger RNA in the synthesis of proteins.
|Endoplasmic Reticulum||flattened sacs and tubes that may be continuous with the nuclear membrane.|
|Rough ER|| |
#5; ER that is studded with ribosomes and is involved in protein synthesis.
|Soft ER|| |
#14; ER that is involved in steroid and lipid synthesis.
|Golgi Apparatus|| |
#4; membranous system involved in packaging protein molecules for export from the cell, packaging enzymes to lysosomes and processing proteins destined to become part of plasma membrane.
#11; membrane-bound vesicles that originate from the Golgi and contain strong digestive enzymes; if ruptured, they have the capacity to totally destroy the cell.
#6; small lysosome-like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxifies alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals.
#7; rod-shaped bodies with a double membrane wall; the site of aerobic respiration that uses oxygen to produce ATP; powerplant of the cell.
#10; paired structures oriented at right angles to each other; composed of microtubules and is involved in the formation of mitotic spindle.
|Cytoplasm||all the materal and organelles inside the plasma membrane and outside of the nucleus.|
cell life cycle in which the cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities.
|Cell Division||cell life cycle in which the cell reproduces itself; two events: Mitosis and Cytokinesis.|
|Mitosis||division of the nucleus to increase the number of cells for growth and repair.|
division of the cytoplasm.
|Epithelial Tissue/Epithelia/Epi||- tissues that cover surfaces;|
- functions: protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sometimes sensory reception.
- cells fit closely together to form membranes or sheet of cells;
- membranes always have one exposed surface=apical surface.
- cells are attached to and supported by basement membrane.
- have no blood supply of their own.
|Simple Squamous Epi|| |
Location: lining the kidney glomeruli, kidney tubules, blood vessels and heart, and alveoli and lungs.
Function: diffusion, secretion, filtration
|Simple Cuboidal Epi|| |
Location: lining the kidney tubules, glands, and surface of ovary.
Function: secretion and absorption.
|Simple Columnar Epi|| |
Location: lining the digestive tract (cont. goblet cells), gallbladder, and ducts of glands.
Function: secretion and absorption.
|Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epi|| |
always have goblet cells;
Location: lining the trachea, bronchi, and nasal cavity
Function: propel mucus
|Simple Ciliated Columnar Epi|| |
Location: lining the uterine tubes, superior portion of uterus, and male reproductive.
Function: propel mucus
|Stratified Squamous Epi|| |
1. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epi - contains keratin, a waterproofing protein. (waves)
Location: lining the skin
2. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epi
Location: lining the lips, cheeks, eyes and vagina
Both functions as a protection.
|Transitional Epi|| |
Location: lining the urinary bladder, and ureter
|Connective Tissue (CT)|| - most abundant;|
- functions: protect, support, and bind together other tissues of the body.
- made up of many different types of cells and nonliving substances found outside the cells (extracellular matrix).
- highly vascularized, or have a good blood supply. (exception for the ligaments and tendons)
|Areolar CT|| |
elastic, reticular, collagen fibers; fibroblast.
Location: underskin, surrounding organs and capillaries.
Function: wrap and protect
|Adipose CT|| |
adipocytes (fat cell)
Location: underskin, surrounding kidneys, and behind the eyes.
Function: insulation, protection and energy storage.
|Dense Regular CT|| |
collagen fibers; fibroblast
Location: tendons, ligaments and aponeuroses.
Function: tensile strength in one direction
|Dense Irregular CT|| |
collagen fibers; elastic fibers.
Location: dermis of the skin, fibrous joints capsules, and submucosal layer.
Function: tensile strength in multiple direction.
|Hyaline Cartilage|| |
lacuna; cells=chrondocyte; matrix.
Location: fetal skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilage, tip of nose, trachea and larynx.
Function: support, reinforce and cushion.
|Elastic Cartilage|| |
like the hyaline but with elastic fibers.
Location: outer ear epiglottis
Function: flex and bend; maintain shape.
|Osseous Tissue|| |
Function: support, protection, and mineral storage.
|Integumentary System|| - forms the external body covering;|
- skin and derivatives: sweat & oil glands, hair, nails;
- protects deeper tissue from injury;
- synthesizes vitamin D;
- superficial region of the skin;
- composed of keratinized stratified squamous Epi.
|Keratinocytes||cells that produce keratin.|
- deep region of the skin;
- mostly made up of dense fibrous CT;
- fairly tear resistant
- deep to the dermis;
- essentially Adipose tissue;
- not considered part of the skin but anchors it to underlying organs and provides a site for nutrient storage.
|Stratum Basale (basal layer)|| |
- deepest layer of the epidermis;
- highly mitotic (skin cells are formed);
- contains melanocytes;
|Melanocytes|| - cells that produce melanin;|
- shields nuclei from UV damage;
|Stratum Spinosum (spinal layer)|| |
- cells contain thick layer of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin;
- cell division also occurs in this layer but less often than basal layer.
|Stratum Granulosum (granular layer)|| |
- layer of the epidermis where cells are beginning to die;
- abundant granules in its cells b/c cells start to fill with keratin;
|Stratum Lucidum (clear layer)||layer of the epidermis that is only present in thick skin (palms & soles).|
|Stratum Corneum (horny layer)|| |
- outermost layer of the epidermis;
- can be many layers thick;
- cells in this layer are dead;
- flattened scalelike remnants of cells are full of keratin.
|Papillary Layer|| |
- upper dermal region;
- contains fingerlike projections called dermal papillae, meissner's corpuscles (pain and touch receptors), and free nerve endings.
|Reticular Layer|| |
- deepest skin layer;
- contains blood vessels, sweat and sebaceous glands, and pacinian corpuscles (pressure receptors).
|Dermal Papillae|| |
#3; peg-like projections on the superior surface that indent the overlying epidermis
|Hair Shaft|| |
#5; the visible part of the hair
|Hair Root|| |
#6; The part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the scalp.
|Hair Follicle|| |
#7; narrow cavities in the dermis from which hair grows
|Hair Bulb|| |
|Arrector Pili Muscle|| |
- Tiny smooth involuntary muscle attached to hair follicle and dermal papillae;
- contracts when cold or frightened and produces goosebumps
|Sebaceous Gland|| |
#10; Oil-secreting gland in the dermis that is associated with hair follicles.
|Sudoriferous Gland|| |
#11; Sweat-secreting gland
|Sweat Duct|| |
|Sweat Pore|| |
|Blood Vessels|| |
|Pacinian Corpuscle|| |
#15; deep pressure receptor located within or near the hypodermis
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