The study of Carbon compounds.
The belief in a life force outside the bounds of physical and chemical laws. Used as the foundation for Organic Chemistry in the 19th century.
Jons Jakob Berzelius
The Swedish chemist that made a distinction between organic compounds and inorganic compounds.
First chemist that, in 1828, discovered the how to make an organic compound (urea) from the synthesis of ammonium and cyanate solutions.
Posed the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic sources in the context of evolution.
Successor of Vitalism. Method of thought in relation to Organic Chemistry that physical and chemical laws govern all natural phenomena.
Differences in carbon arrangement in regards to length, branching, double bond position, and presence of rings.
Molecules consisting of only Carbon and Hydrogen.
Compounds with the same number of atoms, and the same elements, but different structure, and therefore, different functions.
Isomers with differences in the arrangement of covalent bonds.
Isomers with difference in spatial arrangement of atoms due to an inflexible double bond.
Isomers that are mirror images of each other around an asymmetric carbon, labeled by either L (Levo) or D (Dextro).
chemical groups that change the function of a molecule by altering its shape.
Functional group consisting of a Hydrogen bonded to an oxygen. Composes alcohols, with names that usually end in -ol. Is polar as a result of the electronegative oxygen.
Functional group with a Carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom. Can be a ketone or aldehyde.
A molecule that has a centrally located carbonyl.
A molecule with a carbonyl toward the end of the molecule.
Functional group with a Carbon double bonded to an Oxygen and single bonded to another Oxygen with an Oxygen and Hydrogen. Can act as an acid because of its ability to donate H+ ions.
Compounds with both a carboxyl and amino group.
Functional group with a Nitrogen bonded to two Hydrogen atoms and then attached to a Carbon skeleton. Can act as a base and accept a H+.
Functional group of Sulfur bonded to Hydrogen.
A functional group of an Oxygen bonded to a Carbon skeleton before extending to a Phosphorous, bonded to three Oxygen atoms - one double bond, two negatively charged. This functional group has the potential to release energy when reacted with water, and given a charge of 2- when bonded to the end of a carbon skeleton, and then 1- when attached to a chain of groups of the same type.
Functional group with a Carbon atom bonded to three Hydrogen atoms. Addition of this group to DNA can affect gene expression.